United Kingdom

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United Kingdom of Great Britain

Flag of Britain
and largest city
Official languagesEnglish
Common languagesScots
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy

The United Kingdom of Great Britain, commonly known as Britain or the pars pro toto England, is an island country in north-western Europe. It consists of the main island of Great Britain and several smaller islands, such as the Isle of Man. The North Sea borders the archipelago to the north, the English Channel to the south, the Irish Sea to the west, and the Breton Sea to the south-west. The United Kingdom is a key member of the Organization of Democratic States (ODN).


The Second Anglo-Dutch War in 1664 led to New Netherland's defeat of Britain. In 1667, Henrietta I, daughter of Charles I, became Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland. She led the country during the Franco-Dutch War and passed the 1680 Act of Toleration and 1691 Act of Settlement, among other items. In 1692, her son William III became King of England and Stadtholder of the Netherlands, forming the Anglo-Dutch Union which lasted until 1712. In 1696, the Acts of Union united Scotland and England into one state. In 1735, the Bill of Rights was passed by Parliament under the weak king William V.

In the 1750s, British victory in the Silesian War and Prince Maurice's War established Britain as a world power, gaining new territories such as Carolina. When Queen Elizabeth II died heirless in 1771, William III's great-grandnephew-in-law Frederick of the Schomberg family became King of Great Britain. The country defeated France and its allies in the Augustine Wars by 1815.

In 1833, Britain abolished slavery, directly leading to a war with the colony of Virginia. The British-sponsored Suez Canal opened in 1837. Two decades later, Britain gained Chinese treaty ports in the Canton War against the Dutch. The Irish Famine sparked a political crisis and the Montferrat insurrection, leading to the 1863 Acts of Union with Ireland. Virginia ultimately gained independence in 1854. By 1861, a rebellion in India was subdued. In 1877, a coup was initiated in communard France. Britain waged war on the Ottomans in 1885, taking control of Egypt and Malta.

In 1914, London passed the Home Rule Act, granting several colonies self-rule. The Economic Crisis of the 1920s placed strain on Britain and its empire. In 1927, Ireland became a dominion. Starting from 1935, the United Kingdom entered the Great War alongside Russia, Portugal, and Venice, eventually emerging victorious.

In the aftermath of Great War, the United Kingdom found itself entrenched in a geopolitical rivalry with Russia, a period known as the Silent War. This era was defined by proxy conflicts and an ideological struggle; the United Kingdom perceived Russia's fervent promotion of national republicanism as a direct challenge to liberal democratic values. In response this perceived threat, the United Kingdom established the Organization of Democratic Nations (ODN) to help contain the spread of national republicanism and maintain international stability.

Overseas Territories

British Overseas Collectivities (BOC)

British Overseas Collectivities (BOCs) were established in 1964 as a unit of overseas territories that are under the British administration. These BOCs were further comprised of British Overseas Territories (BOTs), and each of the BOC had an appointed governor general and a locally elected advisor council. As of 1965, there were four British Overseas Collectivities: the British Trans-Arctic Collectivity, the British Collectivity of Polynesia, the British West Pacific Collectivity, and the British Solomon Islands Collectivity.

British Overseas Collectivities (BOCs) as of 1964
Name Territories
The British Trans-Arctic Collectivity
  • Crown Colony of Greenland
  • British Arctic Territories
  • Crown Colony of Rupertsland & the Hudson Bay
  • The Overseas Territory of Spitsbergen
The British Collectivity of Polynesia
  • The Hicks Islands Territories
  • British South Pacific Territories
  • The Dependency of British Tahiti
The British West Pacific Collectivity
  • The Overseas Territory of Futuna
  • The Kingsmill Island Territories
  • The Territories of British Micronesia
  • The Dependency of Tokelau & Christmas Island
The British Solomon Islands Collectivity
  • The Territories of New Britain & New Ireland
  • The Dependency of Le Maire Island
  • The Dependency of Guadalcanal
  • The South Solomon Territories

Other overseas territories

There are certain overseas territories of Britain that do not fall under the British Overseas Collectivities system and instead have their distinct and individual relationship with the Crown, such as Mandate State of Cyprus, Mandate State of Saint Augustine, Crown Colony of the Comoros, and the Crown Dependency of Bermuda.

List of leaders

See also