The National Republic of Austria is a country located in Central Europe. Austria once controlled a multi-ethnic empire under the Habsburgs (as the Austrian Empire) until they were defeated in the Great War in 1939.
Austria's modern history has primarily been defined by its reigning dynasty, the Habsburgs. The Habsburgs gained many territories during the 14th to 17th century. During the 17th to 18th century, their history has been defined by their constantly rivalry with the Ottoman Empire. However, this rivalry began to reverse by the 19th century when the Ottoman Empire liberated Austria from the French during the Augustine Wars.
Austria in the Great War
By the 20th century, Austria was at odds with Great Britain over influence in continental Europe. Together with France and the Ottoman Empire, Austria formed the Tripartite Coalition. In 1935, the Tripartite Coalition was involved in the Great War, fighting against the Cordial League (a coalition led by Great Britain and Russia). The war ended in a devastating defeat for the Tripartite Coalition.
In the resulting Congress of Vienna, the Austrian Empire's territory was carved up and divided. New nations came out of the former empire's territories, while some territory were ceded to Illyria, Venice, Russia, and Poland.
Members of the broader Habsburg line was forbidden from holding political office, while the direct descendants of Empress Claudia von Habsburg were actively persecuted. After the war, Austria was reestablished as a liberal republic. However, political turmoil in the face of an active pro-Russian National Republican movement led to the Austrian Civil War, which lasted from 1962-1965. The National Republicans won the civil war, establishing the Austrian National Republic in 1965.
Government and Politics
List of leaders
- First Austrian Republic (1939-1965)
- Oskar Uffermann (1939-1943)
- Christoph Bierkamp (1943-1946): term unfinished, died of natural causes
- Werner Schutte (1946-1952): assumed acting President in 1946, elected in 1952
- Konstantin Kurjak (1952-1956)
- Otto Clauberg (1956-1965): deposed by the National Republicans
- Austrian National Republic (1965-)
- Hans Dressler (1965-)