|Mongolian National Republic|
|Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Улс|
|Languages||Khalkha Mongol |
Mongolia (Mongol: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ; Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in Central Asia, bordering Russia to the east and north, China to the south, Turkestan to the west & Serindia to the southwest.
The territory of modern-day Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the First Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism spread to Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
Khalkha khanates & the Tüsheet Khanate
Four Khalkha Mongol khanates ruled by Chingizid khans dominated local politics in Outer Mongolia since the mid-16th century. During of the Canton-War, the secession of South China and the Anglo-French invasion of Qing China, local Mongol rulers led by the Chingizid Tüsheet Khan Tserendorj saw the weakness of the Qing state and decided to strike. On 1853 the Khan declared Mongolia free from Qing rule and that Mongolia shall know be known as the 'Ikh Mongol Uls', meaning the "Great Mongolian State".
Sino-Mongolian War and Russian influence
The declaration of independence from the Qing led to the bloody Sino-Mongolian War (1853-1860) in which the new Mongolian state made heavy use of Russian Cossack mercenaries, growing increasingly dependent on Russian trade. By 1877 the Khanate of Mongolia was effectively a Russian client state with strong political and economic dependencies on the empire. In 1879, Russia supported a Russian-educated heir claimant to the Khanate which solidified their grasp on the region.
Mongolia in the early 20th century
Mongolia remained a strong Russian ally and started to adopt many Russian institutions (including a major reform to their military in 1901) but still remained a devotedly Buddhist nation with Russian priests being banned from proselytizing in the nation. In 1905 after the Khan died the fourth Tüsheet Khan, Dashyam, turned Mongolia into a full Buddhist theocratic state after he was declared to be the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu and Bogd Gegeen.
During the European Economic Crisis and the subsequent chaos in Russia, Mongolia found itself in a uncertain position with it's strongest benefactor falling to revolution and the nation being swept up in ever raising ethnic tension. In 1928, the Mongolian National-Republican taking inspiration from Russia couped the Khan, abolished the Khanate and declared the creation of the Mongolian National Republic (which was recognized by Russian nationalist government of Anastaze Murmsky shortly after). Between 1928 and 1933 the new government preceded with a policy of exiling and discriminating against Han Chinese in the country. This led to a wave of emigration of Chinese out of the country and towards neighboring nations such as Serindia and Tibet.
Disputes with Serindia
As the global oil boom swung into motion in the early and middle of the 20th century, nations and enterprises the world were over were commissioning prospectors hoping for a big find. Serindia, long suspected of holding large supplies, began oil production in the early 1940s. Mongolia & China, fueled by ethnic nationalism and holding long lasting disputes over oil producing regions started to press their claims to Dschungaria & Gamsu (respectively). These two nations having put aside most of their own territorial disputes in the 1939 'Treaty of Bayannaoer' started to build ties with each other throughout the 1940s and 50s. In 1963 Mongolia & China, along with Tibet engaged in the secret 'Chamdo - talks' establishing borders in a potential partitioning of the ailing Serindia. This came to a head in 1964 as the British withdrew material support to Serindia due to conflicts in Persia & Austria as well as leaked intelligence outlining the Chamdo-talk plans. In April of 1964 Mongolia, Tibet and China established the 'Central Asian Community Alliance' and jointly invaded Serindia, demanding the cessation of violence against ethnic minorities in the state and the cessation of certain regions. Serindia surrendered in October of that year and was forced to sign the Treaty of Kumul- amongst other things handing over Dschungaria to the Mongol National Republic.
Government and Politics
Vague language in the 1964 Treaty of Kumul has led to an ongoing dispute over the Ili valley which has been occupied by Mongolia but claimed by Serindia as integral territory.
The Sino-Corean War led to numerous ethnic Han refugees settling in Mongolia from 1888 to 1915. This led to a gradual rise in ethnic and sectarian conflict between the two groups as well as bouts of violence, like the 1899 Anti-Han pogrom in Oorga. From 1928 and 1933 the Mongolia government instituted discriminatory ethnic and cultural policies against it's Han Chinese minority as well as deporting over a third of their overall population to Russian Poeja and Northern China. In 1939 anti-Chinese discrimination mostly ended with the signing of Sino-Mongolian Treaty of Bayannaoer which included a provision banning both nations from persecuting each other's ethnic groups.
Mostly inhabiting the territories gained by Mongolia in Dschungaria, Uighurs have experienced high levels of state directed cultural assimilation. In 1965 the Mongolian government restricted public displays of the Islamic religion as well as a moratorium on the building of Mosques.