Mongolia

From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty
Mongolia
Mongolian National Republic
Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Улс
RTL Flag of Mongolia.png
Locator Mongolia.pngLocation of Mongolia
CapitalOorga
LanguagesKhalkha Mongol
Mandarin
Burjat
Oirat
Russian

Mongolia (Mongol: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ) is a landlocked nation in Central Asia, bordering Russia to the east and north, China to the south, and Serindia to the west.

History

Premodern era

The territory of modern-day Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the First Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism spread to Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.

Khalkha khanates & the Tüsheet Khanate

Four Khalkha Mongol khanates ruled by Chingizid khans dominated local politics in Outer Mongolia since the mid-16th century. During the Canton War, local Mongol rulers led by Tüsheet Khan Tserendorj declared Mongolia free from Qing rule, re-establishing an independent Mongolian monarchy.

Sino-Mongolian War and Russian influence

This led to the bloody Sino-Mongolian War (1853-1860) in which the new Mongolian state made heavy use of Russian Cossack mercenaries, growing increasingly dependent on Russian trade. By 1877 the Khanate of Mongolia was effectively a Russian client state with strong political and economic dependencies on the empire. In 1879, Russia supported a Russian-educated heir claimant to the Khanate which solidified their grasp on the region.

Mongolia in the early 20th century

Mongolia remained a strong Russian ally and started to adopt many Russian institutions (including a major reform to their military in 1901) but still remained a devotedly Buddhist nation with Russian priests being banned from proselytizing in the nation. In 1905 after the Khan died the fourth Khan, Dashyam, turned Mongolia into a full Buddhist theocratic state.

Mongolian Revolution

During the European Economic Crisis and the subsequent chaos in Russia, Mongolia found itself in a uncertain position with it's strongest benefactor falling to revolution and the nation being swept up in ethnic in ever raising ethnic tension. In 1928, the Mongolian National-Republican taking inspiration from Russia coup-ed the Khan, abolished the Khanate and declared the creation of the Mongolian National Republic (which was recognized by Russia shortly after). Between 1928 and 1933 the new government preceded with a policy of exiling and discriminating against Han Chinese in the country. This led to a wave of emigration of Chinese out of the country and towards neighboring nations such as Serindia and Tibet.

Government and Politics

Demographics

Ethnicity

Han Chinese

The Sino-Corean War led to numerous ethnic Han refugees settling in Mongolia from 1888 to 1915. This led to a gradual rise in ethnic and sectarian conflict between the two groups as well as bouts of violence, like the 1899 Anti-Han pogrom in Oorga.

See also