|Polish National Republic|
Poland, officially the Polish National Republic, is a country located in Central Europe. Warsaw is the nation's capital and largest metropolis.
In the late antiquity period a people group known as the Western Polans dominated the region and are the group that gave Poland its name. The establishment of Polish statehood can be traced to 966, when the pagan ruler of a realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland embraced Christianity and converted to Catholicism.
The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025 and in 1569 cemented its longstanding political association with Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin. This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous nations of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system different from it's neighbors at the time
The Coalition War against Poland (1832-1834)
During the early 19th century, ideas of reforming the declining Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had sprung up among progressive thinkers throughout the multi-ethnic empire. In 1829, the Great Sejm of Poland introduced a new constitution for Poland, designed to limit foreign influence in Poland. This was met with suspicion from Poland's neighbors, specifically Russia and Austria, who were happily content with the deteriorating status of the commonwealth. After the Ottomans' victory and prestige in helping defeat the French in the during the French revolutionary wars, Russia and Austria feared that their influence in Poland might be overshadowed. This prompted the Coalition War against Poland (1832-1834), launched by a coalition of Austria, Russia, Saxony, and Pomerania. The war ended with the partition of Polish territory designed to paralyze Polish power and influence, and left Poland as a rump multi-ethnic state and a buffer between Russia and Austria.
Poland in the 20th century
Insurgency in Poland (1920s-1930s)
By the late 19th to early 20th century, the hallmark tolerance of the Poland gradually waned. Economic stagnation and hardship caused tensions between the ethnic and religious groups in Poland, primarily the Germans in the north coast, the Ruthenians in the south, and the Jewish communities throughout Poland. The Germans of the north wanted to either have their own state, or be integrated to Pomerania; the Ruthenians wanted to secede from Poland; the Jews demanded more rights and a reversal of anti-Jewish policies enacted in Poland during the early 20th century.
Poland in the Great War
When the Great War erupted, Poland officially declared neutrality. Austria and the Ottomans tried to coerce the Polish state into siding with the Tripartite Coalition, to allow them access through Polish territory. However, Poland steadfastly refused. As a response, Austria started supplying the German insurrectionists in the north with weapons and auxiliary support. In the south, there have been reports of Ottoman troops crossing Polish borders. The Polish Sejm accused the Tripartite Coalition of agitating for war, but this was denied by both Austria and the Ottoman Empire.
On the 18th and 20th of September 1936, two explosions damaged parts of the Krakau railway, killing two Austrian servicemen. Three people were arrested, identified by Austria as "Polish nationalists." Although Poland denied any involvement in the attacks, the Austrians maintained that these were "acts of subversion carried out by the Polish state." On 26 September 1936, the Austrian Empire declared war on Poland. This was followed with the Ottomans also declaring war on Poland on the same day, and laid siege to Kiev.
The siege of Kiev lasted for four months, and ended in the city's capitulation to the Ottoman army. By June 1937, Poland had been fully occupied by Austrian and Ottoman forces.