The Great War

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The Great War
TheGreatWarHeaderPhoto.jpg
Partition and occupation of France, the Ottoman Empire and Austria at the end of the War
Date5 May 1935 – 14 April 1939
(3 years, 11 months, 1 week)
Location
Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania
Result Cordial League victory, Congress of Amsterdam
Territorial
changes
• Formation of new nations in Central Europe and the Near East
• Dissolution of the Austrian Empire
• Occupation of France
• Independence of several French colonies
• Territorial changes in China and Corea
• The Indian Revolution
Belligerents
the Tripartite Coalition (France, Austria, Ottoman Empire) the Cordial League
Casualties and losses
8,830,000 combatant deaths
7,930,000 civilian deaths
9,190,000 combatant deaths
11,070,000 civilian deaths

The Great War (French: La Grande Guerre; Dutch: de Groote Oorlog; Russian: Европейское кровопролитие; Corean: 대거세함낙; German: Der Kontinentalkrieg; Ottoman Turkish: بزرگ روسیه چنگ, Bozorg Rosja Tšeng; Arabic: الحرب الأوروبية الكبرى; Portuguese: O Grande Choque Europeu), also known as the Great European War and often abbreviated as GW, was a global war originating in Europe that began in the second trimester of 1935.

It was fought between the Tripartite Coalition (led by France, the Ottoman Empire, and the Austrian Empire) and the Cordial League (led by the United Kingdom and Russia). Consequential atrocities and humanitarian crises of this war caused an estimated 100 million deaths worldwide.

Context

Rising anti-British & anti-Russian sentiment

Russo-Ottoman relations

The Ottoman Empire underwent political modernization in the early 20th century. The rise of the Orkhonist faction began fueling a revanchist attitude towards Crimea, which was once part of the Ottoman Empire, now part of Russia. The Ottoman empire began on a campaign of subversion against Russia. They began supporting rebellions in Central Asia, culminating the Turkestan's declaration of independence from Russia in 1924. This harmed Russo-Ottoman relations in the 20th century.

In the 1930s, the Orkhonists spread anti-Russian and anti-British revanchist propaganda throughout the empire. The Orkhonists renewed a territorial claim in Crimea, based on the sultan's familial relations with the old Crimean Giray dynasty. They also promoted the idea of a Greater Ottoman state, one that controlled Egypt, and therefore controlled the Mediterranean. They found an ally in Austria and France, who also had their own resentments against the British and Russians. In 1929, the three states formed the Tripartite Coalition, which strengthened their relationship and cooperation.

Growing British influence in Europe

Meanwhile, the threat of Russian and British influence over Europe loomed. The Venetian invasion of the Papal Adriatic in 1908, sponsored by the British, outraged France and Austria. They saw this as another act of Venetian and, by extension, British aggression. Both France and Austria issued diplomatic protests against the British, demanding the return of the papal holdings, but to no avail. Rising diplomatic tensions eventually led to the Alps War in 1911, when Austria declared war on Venice. Austria called on the French to join the war, but France refused due to the communard government's instability at the time. The war ended in status quo ante bellum. Austria was forced to recognize Venice's acquisition of territory in the Marche. This fueled even greater French and Austrian resentment against Britain.

Faramundism in Austria and the German realms

Emmerich Stefanov, Austrian Chancellor

The neostabilists of Austria saw Faramundism, or the ideology of German unification, as a threat to Austrian hegemony in Central Europe. Austrian Chancellor Emmerich Stefanov began a campaign on suppressing Faramundism in and on the peripheries of the Austrian Empire. In the Kingdom of Saxony, Faramundism (and other ideologies deemed by the Austrians as radical) were freely allowed to flourish. This concerned the neostabilists of Austria. A British intelligence report in early 1935 reported a military presence building upon the Austrian-Saxon border. As such, the British were on high alert but wanted to avoid resorting to military intervention at all costs should an Austro-Saxon conflict happen.

Rise of authoritarianism & the Tripartite Coalition

Grand Marshal of France, Camille Laframboise

The ongoing political tensions drew the nations of France, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire towards authoritarian rule. On September 2, 1919, French president Herve Saunier was overthrown by Grand Marshal François Desmarais, who then abolished the position and ruled as a military dictator under his authoritarian-communard party, L'Avantgarde. After his death, his successor, Camille Laframboise (mockingly known in the Anglosphere as "the Raspberry General") continued authoritarian rule and made diplomatic ties with the Ottomans and Austria.

In Austria, the authoritarian conservative Neostabilist faction rose as the dominant political force in Austria, after its leader, Emmerich Stefanov, became Austrian chancellor in 1914. At the threat of being diplomatic pariahs, Stefanov rekindled Austria's diplomatic relationship with the Ottoman Emprire. In the Ottoman Empire, the rule of the Orkhonists meant a heavy hand on political and diplomatic policies. Later combined with the socio-economic pressures of the European Economic Crisis in 1922-1928, the three nations eventually signed the Treaty of Agreement in 1929 in Vienna, Austria, forming a military and economic alliance. This alliance would be known as the Tripartite Coalition.

The Tripartite pact was composed of polities of widely different political orientations. France was a Communard Republic, Austria was a neo-autocratic multi-national empire, and the Ottoman state was an empire led by a military government promoting Orkhonism, with a sultan who served as a figurehead. What allowed these nations to exist harmoniously as allies was the threat of Anglo-Russian domination of Europe and these nations' rejection of the growing economic world order based upon liberal-democratic capitalism in the west. Additionally, the ideology of National-republicanism championed by Russia posed an extensional threat to the Austrian & Ottoman empires.

Phases of the War

First Phase (1935)

Ottoman attack on Russia (May 1935)

1935 map depicting Russia at war with the Ottoman and Corean Empires

The war officially started on May 5, 1935, when Ottoman Grand Vizier Oguen Oesstekin announced a Declaration of War against the Nationalist Republic of Russia. The timing of the declaration of war was strategic; it was declared once the Russians poured most of their efforts into the eastern Russo-Corean War. Ottoman forces landed on the Crimean peninsula within the same week and captured the cities of Ochakov, Kerch, and Yevpatoria at the end of the month.

Russian resistance was weak, especially considering that Russia was also at war with the separatist Turkestan, allied to the Ottomans.

Austrian occupation of Saxony (June 1935)

On June 7, 1935, Austrian troops mobilized and invaded the Kingdom of Saxony. Austrian ambassador to Britain, Friedrich Boehme, reported that it was not an act of war against the Kingdom of Saxony but a response to the Saxon monarchy's calls to quell the "state of anarchy" and restore order. The Saxon government was also reported to be in debt to the Austrian monarchy, which the Austrians used to justify their occupation. Austrian news reported the occupation as "welcomed" by the Saxon public. However, post-war analyses revealed this statement to be largely untrue. Britain, still unwilling to intervene directly, resorted to diplomatic means to resolve the issue, which resulted in Britain eventually recognizing the Austrian occupation on June 27, 1935.

Not long after, by the next week, on July 1, 1935, British intelligence once again reported a large buildup of the Austrian military, this time on the Pomeranian border. This shifted the attitude of Britain towards Austria. On July 5, Britain declared a guarantee of Pomeranian independence, warning Austria of a war should they invade Pomerania.

French intervention and invasion of Savoy-Piedmont (July-August 1935)

Background

Since the 1880s, local communard parties had already sprung up in the kingdoms of Savoy and Piedmont. These communard parties followed the strain of moderate communardism promoted by France at the time, and some communards were respected and held administrative posts. Members of the Savoy Communard Party even had 15 out of the 40 seats in the Piedmontese parliament in 1903. However, as communardism in France grew more radical with the rise of autocrat Grand Marshall François Desmarais in 1910, new radical communard groups formed in Savoy and Piedmont.

On August 14, 1924, members of the Piedmont Communard Party known as the "Turin Group," led by Giusep Castiglione, staged a failed coup attempt. Castiglione and his accomplices were then arrested by the next week and were given what many communards deemed an unfair "show trial." Castiglione and 14 other accomplices (including one Savoyard) were then executed. This sparked public outrage in both Piedmont and Savoy. Throughout the late 1920s to early 1930s, Savoy and Piedmont would face riots and protests, some calling for the overthrow of the monarchy and the entire social order. The communards also pleaded to France for help. France's new dictatorial leader, Camille Laframboise, declared his sympathy for the Piedmontese and Savoyard communard struggle and vowed to bring security and stability back into the region.

The invasion
Reorganization of Piedmont and Savoy (August 1935).
French soldiers on the 9th of July during heavy fighting.

On July 5, 1935, France launched Opération Grosseille (on the same day the British announced their guarantee of Pomerania's independence), which aimed to restore order in Savoy and Piedmont. The French military entered Savoy and Piedmont on that week, and faced very little resistance. The Savoyard royal family fled to the Rhineland Republic while the Piedmontese royal family fled east to the Republic of Lombardy. New communard caretaker governments were set up. However, on August 12, 1935, Savoy and Piedmontese territory were reorganized into three communard republics: Arpitania, Piemont, and Lombardia (not to be confused with the neighboring Republic of Lombardy).

Great Britain and Portugal's entrance in the war (July 1935)

Great Britain's guarantee of Pomeranian independence on July 5, 1935, did very little to stop the buildup of Austrian troops on the Pomeranian border. To British Prime Minister Sir Benjamin Wallace Kaylock, this proved the Austrians' resolve and determination to invade the country. As a response, the British began stationing troops in Pomerania at the behest of King Otto of Pomerania on July 12. This angered Austrian Chancellor Emmerich Stefanov, who denounced it as another scheme by Great Britain to grow their influence on the continent. Queen Henrietta of Britain penned a letter to Austrian Empress Claudia Maddalena Hapsburg to defuse the situation, but it remains unclear whether the letter was ignored or had not reached her at all.

By the end of the week, Kaylock was convinced that the Austrians would invade. However, there were several issues with the British forces in Pomerania. Most of the men stationed did not speak German or Polish and had difficulty collaborating with their Pomeranian counterparts. The British also sported outdated military tactics and equipment, some even dating back to the Anglo-Turkish War in 1884-1885. Despite all of this, there was a sense of complacency and confidence amongst the British army in Pomerania, which some historians partially attribute to Britain's then prestige from the conquest of Africa.

On July 19, Austria formally declared war on Britain. Austrian troops advanced to Pomerania. Heavy fighting broke out on the outskirts of Berlin and the Pomeranian border. Eventually, the Austrians quickly overran the British and Pomeranian forces and entered the city of Berlin on July 22, 1935. After a fierce battle, the British were forced to retreat. This was a disaster and a colossal embarrassment for Prime Minister Kaylock's government.

Portugal, Britain's ally, also declared war against France and Austria. On the same day, Russia and Britain signed the Cordial Accord, a military alliance with the purpose of defeating the Tripartite Coalition, effectively merging the Russo-Ottoman conflict with Britain's war against Austria and France.

Entrance of minor nations

Throughout 1935-1936, various nations in Europe and Asia joined the war on either side. The Federation of Tussenland joined the war in 3 September 1935, after a Tussenlander ship, PWHS Potouwatomie, was allegedly sunk by French torpedoes (although this claim is widely contested). The Corean Empire joined on the side of the French and the Tripartite Coalition in October 1935, with the French promising the Coreans aid against the Russian and Japanese "invaders." Sicily joined the war in December 1935, after Austria and France promised them territory in Naples.

Battle of Suez (December 1935)

Due to a massive communication delay, a massive maritime traffic jam was created in the Suez canal, trapping British ships on the Mediterranean side of the canal. This proved to be easy pickings for the Ottomans. On December 14, 1935, a joint Franco-Ottoman naval force ambushed a fleet of British ships on the Mediterranean side of the canal. Twenty-five British ships were sunk. The battle was a decisive victory for France and the Ottoman Empire.

The War by Christmas, 1935

By the end of 1935, the Tripartite Coalition was able to make significant gains in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Ottoman troops were able to occupy huge swathes of territory in Crimea and in the steppes, while the Austrians pushed south and invaded Naples with the help of Sicily.

The Ottomans controlled the Suez Canal and parts of the Sultanate of Egypt, hampering the naval power of Britain and her allies. On the colonial front, France launched invasions into British territory, and was able to occupy Portuguese Guinea and parts of British East Africa. The French were also able to capture the island of Vandiemensland (part of French Australie) in Oceania.

The great war at the end of 1935. Full resolution here.

The Asian theatre

Some historians consider the precursor of the war in Asia, the Russo-Corean War (1932-1936), to be a part of the Great War. This was a punitive war fought by Russia against the expansionist Corean Empire. The Netherlands was allied to Corea and also fought in the conflict, but dropped out in 1935 after Great Britain entered an alliance with Russia. Near the end of the Russo-Corean War, Corea entered into an alliance with the Tripartite Coalition, but Corea eventually surrendered to Russia not long after, resulting in the dissolution of the Corean monarchy and the establishment of the Corean National Republic. The monarchy is in exile in Viet-Nam.

Second Phase (1936-1937)

Austro-Ottoman Invasion of Poland (September 1936)

By the late 19th to early 20th century, the hallmark tolerance of the Poland gradually waned. Economic stagnation and hardship caused tensions between the ethnic and religious groups in Poland, primarily the Germans in the north coast, the Ruthenians in the south, and the Jewish communities throughout Poland. The Germans of the north wanted to either have their own state, or be integrated to Pomerania; the Ruthenians wanted to secede from Poland; the Jews demanded more rights and a reversal of anti-Jewish policies enacted in Poland during the early 20th century.

When the Great War erupted, Poland officially declared neutrality. Austria and the Ottomans tried to coerce the Polish state into siding with the Tripartite Coalition, to allow them access through Polish territory. However, Poland steadfastly refused. As a response, Austria started supplying the German insurrectionists in the north with weapons and auxiliary support. In the south, there have been reports of Ottoman troops crossing Polish borders. The Polish Sejm accused the Tripartite Coalition of agitating for war, but this was denied by both Austria and the Ottoman Empire.

On the 18th and 20th of September 1936, two explosions damaged parts of the Krakau railway, killing two Austrian servicemen. Three people were arrested, identified by Austria as "Polish nationalists." Although Poland denied any involvement in the attacks, the Austrians maintained that these were "acts of subversion carried out by the Polish state." On 26 September 1936, the Austrian Empire declared war on Poland. This was followed with the Ottomans also declaring war on Poland on the same day, and laid siege to Kiev.

The siege of Kiev lasted for four months, and ended in the city's capitulation to the Ottoman army. By June 1937, Poland had been fully occupied by Austrian and Ottoman forces. The royal dynasty of Poland willfully surrendered and collaborated with the Tripartite Coalition, earning the ire of the Tripartite Coalition.

Siege of Kiev (October 1936 - January 1937)

Destruction from the Siege of Kiev

A pursuing Ottoman force under M.M. Hadschiolu (also known as Mehmed Mutar Pascha) advanced north from Crimea towards the city of Kiev. Taking Kiev was was one of the Ottomans' primary objectives in the second phase of the war. The administration of Kiev was immediately notified of the impending danger and began the construction of fortifications. There was a massive exodus of civilians to the north, but hundreds of thousands remained within the city. All able-bodied men and women were enlisted as militia to help defend the city. By 16 October 1936, the Ottomans besieged Kiev.

The Ottomans constantly shelled the city with artillery and air bombardments during the first two months of the siege. As weeks passed, the daily ration for civilians grew less and less. The citizens of Kiev spent Christmas in cold and hunger, but remained resolute and determined. However, by new years eve, supplies were running low, and without any route for the Cordial League to supply Kiev, there was little hope for them.

It soon became clear that no reinforcements were coming. On 11 January 1937, the city of Kiev capitulated to the Ottoman forces, ending the 278-day siege.

Peace in Central Asia (March 1937)

Treaty of Akmolinsk (March 1937)

When it seemed like the Tripartite Coalition was unstoppable at this point, the Russians gained a major victory in Central Asia. After the Russians defeated Corea in the Russo-Corean War in 1936, the Russians shifted their focus towards fighting Turkestan in Central Asia.

Eventually, Orkhonist leaders also grew tired of the constant conflict and start to see Russian-style National-Republicanism as an alternative to Ottoman-brand Orkhonism (while hardline anti-Russian Orkhonists fell out of influence due to unrest from the local population). In 1937, Russia engaged in negotiation with the Orkhonist leaders once again, and peace was achieved in March 1937: with the establishment of the National Republics of Turkestan and Tadjikistan, modeled after the Russian form of government.

Interception of the Franco-Swedish Telegraph (June 1937)

In June 1937, British intelligence intercepted a secret diplomatic communication between France and the Kingdom of Sweden. The diplomatic communication was sent to French ambassador to Sweden, Alexandre Mallet, instructing him to convince the Swedish state to join the Tripartite Coalition and pre-emptively attack Norway, which declared neutrality in the war but allied to Great Britain. This leaked communication solidified public opinion against the Tripartite Coalition. In August 1937, Norway joined the Cordial League and declared war against the Tripartite Coalition. Sweden remained neutral throughout the war.

The War in Africa

In North Africa, the French had launched the invasion of British Numidia (Northeastern Algeria) in February 1937. They had captured major ports, including the Venetian port of Annaba. In East Africa, the British East Africa colony capitulated to the invading French army in the same month and military rule was established. In two months (April 1936), a communard colonial government was established, and British East Africa was renamed Rouvuma, after the Ruvuma river.

After Rouvuma was established, French statesman Ignace Foquet was placed as the Lieutenant-General. Foquet was known to rule with a heavy hand. By June 1936, rumours of torture and execution of British African loyalists came out of Rouvouma, allegedly sanctioned by Foquet. This sparked outrage in the French colonies in East Africa, particularly in Kirignaga. In September 1936, the Parti Communard de Kirignaga (PCK), a homegrown communard party, filed a protest against the French East African Army’s activities in Rouvouma. They organized demonstrations in the capital of Kirignaga.

The War by July, 1937

The Peak of the Tripartite Coalition's territorial gains in July 1937. Art by u/JVFreitas. Full resolution on Reddit.

Third Phase (1937-1938)

After July 1937, the Tripartite Coalition struggled to keep their new territorial gains. In August 1937, Norway formally enters the war on the Tripartite Coalition's side. A joint Anglo-Norwegian invasion of Tripartite-occupied Pomerania is launched on the 3rd week of August, and liberated a significant portion of western and central Pomerania. Subsequently, the British launched a naval invasion into French-controlled Niger.

French embassy to New Netherland & Mexico

On the same month (August 1937), New Amsterdam and Mexico City had correspondence with the French diplomatic delegation. Édouard Boissonade, French ambassador to America, invited New Netherland and Mexico to join the war on the Tripartite Coalition's side. In the case of a French victory, Boissonade promised Mexico City the return of Tussenlander territory formerly part of the Mexican Empire (the Misuri provinces), and promised New Amsterdam territory in Irokesenland and Meerenland.

Tussenlander withrawal from the war (September 1937)

As a result of Mexico's dubious response to France's call to join the war, the Tussenlander government began to exercise caution. Tussenland was relatively safe from the Great War, and only provided auxiliary support to Britain. However, Mexico and New Netherland in the war "would spell disaster for Tussenland," remarked Tussenland President Cornelis Laurensz. New Amsterdam, upon realizing that Tussenland was unwilling to fight a war against New Netherland and Mexico, began a campaign of military posturing on the border with Tussenland. This was a move in an attempt to sever Tussenland's ties with Great Britain by pressuring Tussenland to drop out of the war, after being faced with a threat. This was in line with the geostrategic goals of the ruling party of New Netherland (the Free Destiny Party), which aimed to remove foreign influence in North American nations' affairs. New Netherland, in cooperation with Mexico, continued to delay their response to France's call to war, until the Tussenland government finally announced their withdrawal from the Great War in September 1937.

This had an unfavorable effect on Tussenland. Their withdrawal had disillusioned the families of Tussenlander soldiers in Europe and the general public after seeing their efforts in the war be all for naught. The incumbent Tussenland government (the NTA, or the New Tussenland Alliance) was removed in a vote of no confidence and a National Level elections was held. A republican government was elected in Tussenland, one that was aligned with New Netherland and Mexico.

By November 1937, two months after Tussenland dropped out of the war, New Netherland and Mexico officially refused to join the war on France's side, considering that the Cordial League was starting to make gains in the war.

Operation Vendémiaire: The failed French-Austrian invasion of the Netherlands and Rhineland (September 1937)

Admiral Louw Verduijn, instrumental in the defense of the Netherlands

After several significant losses in Africa and North Germany, Camille Laframboise of France and Stefanov Emmerich of Austria engineer a military operation aimed to shock Great Britain and Russia and distract them from the other active fronts of the war. It also aimed to close what Camille Lafamboise saw as a gap between the Tripartite's Coalition's zone of control: the Rhine and the low countries. The plan was dubbed Operation Vendémiaire (lit. "Operation Grape Harvester" in Occitan). Operation Vendémiaire was launched on September 7, 1937, and began with attacks on the neutral Netherlands and Rhineland.

France had hoped that the Netherlands would easily capitulate, considering that they recently came out of a war in East Asia, while also expecting Rhineland to respond poorly to coordinated Austrian attacks on their eastern border.

Things did not go according to plan, and the French made a rapid push into the Netherlands capturing Antwerp by the end of September. Forward-placed Dutch units bled the French attackers dry providing significant resistance, and preventing the French army from moving north. Instrumental to the defence was Dutch Louw Verduijn who was vehemently anti-French, and a veteran of the Corean expedition and many other wars. As December came closer and closer the war came to a stalemate, with British reinforcements, Dutch firepower and heavy resistance the Dutch were able to force the French to halt their advance. In the Rhineland, the Australians were able to capture Ertfurt and Goettingen but were forced to retreat, after a series of battles in the south and heavy fighting in the mountains. Key to this was the Battle of Alsfield where a Rhenish, Dutch, Anglo force (8th army) was able to push the Austrians back.

Dutch soldiers somewhere in the south during the winter of 1938, one of the coldest reported winters in European history


British Invasion of Tripolitania (February 1938)

A British armored vehicle during the North African campaign

In February 1938, the Bey of Tunis, Hussein ibn Mahmud, entered into a secret pact with the British. This was known as the Convention of Tunis (1938), in which the Bey of Tunis agreed to rebel against the Ottomans and Britain to support and recognize their independence. In March 1938, the Cordial League, mainly led by the British, coordinated an invasion of Ottoman Tripolitania with the assistance of Tunisia. The first clash of British and Ottoman troops occurred on March 27, 1938, during the landing on the port of Zarzis. After two months of fighting, the British were able to take the capital of Tripolitania, Tripoly, and coerced the Karamanli dynasty of Tripolitania to surrender.

Illyrian entry to the war (March 1938)

During the Great War, the Kingdom of Illyria (then known as the Tsardom of Illyria) was initially neutral. The Austria and Ottoman Empires recognized Illyria's usefulness as a buffer state between them, and as such, tried to prevent Illyria from sliding towards the influence of the Cordial League. Britain, on the other hand, tried to coerce Illyria into joining, promising a vast territory should they win. However, the tsar remained steadfastly neutral.

The Tsar began to harbor distrust towards the Tripartite Coalition when neutral Moldavia was attacked by the Ottomans. Furthermore, in the later years of the war, Moldavia annexed the principality of Wallachia. This proved the fragility of the sovereignty of the Balkan states. As a result, Illyria took up Britain's offer to join the Cordial League, in order to protect their sovereignty and to be recognized and seen as equals in the alliance. Podgorica was made the capital of Illyria during the Great War, and remained that way after the war.

Illyria cooperated and fought alongside the British during the war. After the war, they gained vast amounts of territory from the former Austrian and Ottoman Empires.

Invasion of French

Rhineland soldiers pushing forward into Nancy during the invasion of France.


A group of Rhineland soldiers walking past a destroyed French tank somewhere in eastern France.

Conclusion of the War

Liberation of Arabia and Mesopotamia

In the Mesopotamia, several factions rose up in decentralized revolts and formed multiple emirates, some of which were recognized by Great Britain. Most notable of these emirates were Mosul, Deir Azzor, Baghdad, Basrah, and Kirkuk. Meanwhile, in Central Arabia, Muḥammad bin Mutaib of the Rashidi dynasty entered an alliance with Great Britain, and declared the independence of the Emirate of Ha'il (also known as Jebel Shommer) from the Ottomans. Ha'il soon found themselves in a conflict with the Sauds of Nejd, known as the Saudi-Rashidi War. The brief war ended in the annexation of Nejd into Ha'il. An joint Anglo-Rashidi force liberated Southern Arabia in 1937.

Defeat of the Tripartite Coalition

Ottoman Empire

By December 1937, Britain regained control of the Suez Canal with the help of the Rashids and forces from British India, Although successful, the offensives in the Ottomans had an adverse effect in the predominantly Muslim parts of British India, who were sympathetic to the Ottoman Empire. Muslim Indian nationalists allied with Hindu nationalists and started plotting for their independence, which was at first downplayed by Britain. Nationalism in India soon swelled by mid-1938, with Balochis starting their own independence movement, and with the Hindu and Muslim Indian nationalists meeting in Delhi and formed a single front. This caused Britain to withdraw some of their forces from the Ottoman front to quell the situation in India.

At the same time, the Russians also launched a grand offensive towards Constantinople, known as Operation Big Bear (Operacii Bolʹšaja Medvedica) in January 1938. The operation was a huge success for the Russian military. By April 1938, they captured the city of Constantinople. These string of defeats forced the Ottoman Sultan and Grand Vizier to immediately surrender to the Cordial League, in exchange for lighter terms in the peace treaty.
Claudia Magdalena, last monarch of Austria
Austrian Empire

The failure of Operation Vendémiaire contributed to Austria's decision to surrender to the Cordial League. Despite the failures, Austrian Empress Claudia Maddalena relentlessly campaigned for Austria to continue the fight. She personally spoke in public radio to boost the morale of Austrian soldiers and subjects, and prodded Chancellor Emmerich Stefanov to secure victory. However, the Russian capture of Budapest and British capture of Munich pressured the chancellor to declare surrender in September 1938. Shortly after, the Congress of Amsterdam was held in the Netherlands, discussing the terms of peace for Austria and the Ottoman Empire, all the while still fighting France.

Republic of France

Among the three members of the Tripartite Coalition, France was the most defiant, and refused to surrender even at the face of its allies surrendering. The final offensive came in December 1938, and ended in the occupation of France, and the death of dictator Camille Laframboise.

Aftermath

Russo-Ottoman Compromise of 1937

Russo-Rumelian Compromise of 1937

Initially unknown to the rest of the Cordial League, the Russians had already made deals with the Ottoman Sultan after the capture of Constantinople back in June 1937. This was the the Russo-Turkish Compromise of 1937, which created a new Rumelian National Republic and Constantinople made a Russo-Rumelian condominium. Demilitarized zones (DMZs) were also created on the Rumelian and Ottoman side bordering Constantinople.

Congress of Amsterdam

The Congress of Amsterdam was a larger conference held by the members of the Cordial League, to discuss the post-war fate of the Tripartite Coalition. The conference lasted from September 1938 to April 1939. The congress was slowed down due to conflicting interests between Russia and Britain. The pre-arranged secret Russo-Ottoman Compromise of 1937 came under fire during the conference, with Britain lambasting Russia's diplomatic approach. As a compromise, Britain let Russia keep Constantinople, on the condition that Cyprus is ceded to Britain, and Russia is to go without an occupation zone in France.

By the end of the congress, several new states were recognized or created within the former Austrian and Ottoman Empires, while France would be divided into four occupation zones: British, Portuguese, Dutch, and Rhenish. Illyria was also given their own occupation zone in the southern portions of the Austrian Empire, for their invaluable help in fighting Austria.

France would not be reunited until 1944 (five years later after the war), with a liberal democracy installed and heavily audited by Britain.

Factions

Legacy and impact

Political

The Great War drastically altered the map of the old world and created many new nations. The war, either directly or indirectly, was also the cause of several revolutions, most notably the Indian and New England independence movements. The war was also capitalized on by several neutral nations, such as Siam (which declared war on the British protectorate of Konbaung), and Mexico and New Netherland (which supported a revolution in Cuba ousting the pro-British government, and supporting the New England independence movement).

The Post-War Nations of Europe

Partition of the Ottoman Empire.
In the former Ottoman Empire
  • Russian zone of occupation
    • The Ottoman Sultanate: The Ottoman sultanate was territorially reduced.
    • The National Republic of Rumelia: Under the Russian zone of occupation in the Balkans, was established as independent sister republic of the Russian National Republic. Rumelia was a National Republic created by Russia for the Turkish and Muslim population of the Balkans.
    • The National Republic of Bulgaria : Bulgaria was carved out of the Russian zone as a national republic for ethnic Bulgars.
    • The Straits Condomium: The straits zone was made into a condominium between Russia and Rumelia.
  • British zone of occupation
    • Hellas: A constitutional monarchy set up by the British. Hellas was meant to be the home state of the Greeks. A significant population exchange between Rumelia and Hellas occurred between 1940 to 1950.
    • Albania: A constitutional monarchy. Homeland of the Albanians.
  • Other
    • Emirate of Ha'il: (formerly known as Jebel Shommer). Ha'il is an emirate led by the Rashidi dynasty who rebelled and declared war against the Ottomans. Ha'il allied with the British. They also waged war against the Sauds of Nejd, and subsequently annexing them.
    • Emirates of Deir Azzor, Mosul, Kirkuk, Baghdad, and Basrah: Named after their capitals and bases of power, these emirates were led by Arab emirs who rose up in a decentralized revolt against the Ottomans and declaring their own emirates. These emirates allied themselves with the British and were shortly recognized by the Cordial League.
    • Tunisia: The Mamluk Ettabid dynasty of Tunisia rebelled against the Ottomans and sided with the Cordial League to avoid occupation. After the war, Tunisia was recognized as an independent state.
    • Tripolitania
    • Jerusalem: An independent multi-religious state set up by the British with a constitution designed to balance the influence of the various religious groups.
Partition of the Austrian Empire
In the former Austrian Empire
  • Russian zone of occupation
    • Galicia: A National Republic established as a homeland for Jews.
    • Slovakia: A National Republic for ethnic Slovaks.
    • Magyaria: A national republic for the Magyars (Hungarians). It was originally established as the National Republic of Hungary, but later renamed themselves Magyaria (land of the Magyars) in 1941.
  • British zone of occupation
    • Austria: The Austrian monarchy was abolished, and a liberal democracy was established in Austria.
    • Bohemia: A constitutional monarchy.

Former French Colonies

  • Cambodge: A British-backed monarchy.
  • Niger: An Anglo-Portuguese Mandate after the war.
  • Republic of Kirignaga-Loloue: After the French East African army invaded British East Africa (renamed Rovouma after the Ruvuma River), word of torture and the execution of African soldiers loyal to Britain disenfranchised the French colony of Kirignaga's people. These war crimes, perpetrated by Lieutenant-General Ignace Foquet and allegedly sanctioned by Governor General Thibault Chuquet sparked outrage. A local communard party (the Parti Communard de Kirignaga or PCK) began protesting in the capital of Kirignaga. The unrest developed into an uprising against French colonial rule, supported by Britain. After the Great War, Kirignaga merged with Loloue and was recognized as an independent state.
  • French Borneo: French Borneo was ceded to the Netherlands.
  • Australie: The French were forced to recognize Australie's independence. Australie had already been pining for independence since the start of the 20th century.

Other Nations

  • Poland: The monarchy of Poland, although at war with the Tripartite Coalition at first, willfully surrendered and collaborated with the Tripartite Coalition. After the war, Poland was divided by Russia as a punitive measure. The Ruthenian parts of Poland were ceded to Russia, and were incorporated in the Russian National Republic, while some of their eastern territory was ceded to the German states. Initially, the new Polish state was supposed to be landlocked, but Polish National Republicans protested this and were able to negotiate a Baltic coast. Post-war Poland was run by a National Republican government.

Technological

Many advancements were made during the Great War, especially in the field of medicine, clothes manufacturing, and military weaponry. One of the hallmarks of the Great War was the heavy use of cryptography by the Tripartite Coalition. In particular, the development of the MC12, a rotor machine developed by French mathematician Adelaide de Chantereine spearheaded the development of modern cryptography and computing. Chantereine would later be regarded as the founder of modern computer science.

See also