2nd Dutch-Spanish War
|2nd Dutch-Spanish War
|Part of the Wars of Dutch Humiliation (1850-1857)
|Commanders and leaders
Throughout the 19th century, the two rivals in North America had always been the Dutch and the Spanish (controlling Dutch Tussenland and New Spain, respectively). Aside from historical rivalry, relations between the two powers had worsened even further in the early 1800s, when Dutch colonists flocked to the American West claimed by Spain and settled there. Spain's multiple demands to expel these settlers were ignored, as the colonists were acting on their own will and were not officially sanctioned by the Kingdom of the Netherlands. These settlers would be known as the Voortrekkers, or simply, the Boers. They would soon found five short-lived Boer Republics on the west coast (see map) until Spain officially subjugated them in the 1830s as autonomous regions.
In addition to the conflict surrounding the Boers there were a number of other key issues that increased tensions between the Dutch and Spanish. The most notable of these is the Dutch's support for the Colombian Rebels during the Colombian war for independence. During beginning of the independence war Colombians received economic support and continued trade from the Dutch Empire which caused the Spanish to start actively shooting down Dutch merchant ships trying to land in New Granada which, in turn, led to the Dutch empire actively arming the Colombian rebels. Additionally there were lingering tensions and disagreements surrounding the border of Florida and the Southern Tussenland provinces. Along with these border and geopolitical disputes the Spanish and Dutch were major economic rivals and competed with each other heavily in that theater.
Things came to a head in 1850, when the 2nd Dutch-Spanish War had happened, ending in a humiliating Dutch defeat. In the resulting treaty, the Dutch had ceded a large portion of the Mississippi basin region to New Spain, and they were forced to release South Tussenland (see map) as an independent nation, effectively locking the Dutch out of the Gulf of Florida.
In the East Indies, the Dutch ceded North Maluku to the Captaincy General of the Philippines, then under New Spain.
Territorial gains of New Spain
Claims in America before and after the war (Reddit post)