The Russo-Persian War was a military conflict that took place from 1960 to 1963 between the Russian National Republic and the Kingdom of Persia. The war was sparked by a dispute over fishing rights and oil concessions in the Caspian Sea, which led to Russia supporting a secessionist movement in northern Persia known as the Tabari National Republic.
The Caspian Sea, which lies between Russia and Persia, was a significant source of oil and gas, as well as fish. Russia and Persia both claimed ownership over its resources. The dispute over fishing rights and oil concessions intensified when Russia supported a Tabarestani National-Republican secessionist movement in northern Persia. This move was perceived as a direct challenge to Persian sovereignty, and tensions between the two nations escalated. Russia provided military and financial aid to the Tabarestani rebels, enabling them to launch guerrilla attacks against Persian military and civilian targets. The mountainous region of Tabarestan also provided the secessionist forces with a strategic advantage, allowing them to evade Persian forces and continue their insurgency. The Tabarestani rebels also played a crucial role in providing intelligence to the Russians, helping them to identify weak points in Persian defenses.
Great Britain expressed concern over the escalating conflict between Russia and Persia, particularly about the potential impact of the tensions on regional stability and the global oil market. As a major oil producer, both Russia and Persia's involvement in the conflict had the potential to disrupt global oil supplies, causing widespread economic repercussions.
Outbreak of war
The conflict escalated into military action in 1960 when Russian forces invaded Persia, capturing several strategic areas and initiating a campaign of aerial bombardment. The Persians responded with a series of counterattacks, but were unable to push the Russian forces back. By mid-1961, the Russian military had established a strong presence in Tabarestan, and the rebels were able to coordinate their attacks with Russian forces. By late 1962, the rebels and Russian forces had captured several key Persian cities and established a foothold in the region.
Although it did not participate in any military action, Great Britain provided financial and diplomatic support to the Persian government, hoping to prevent the spread of Russian influence in the Middle East. Despite their efforts, however, Britain was unable to prevent the secession of Tabarestan and the further Russian incursions into Persian territory.
End of the war
Treaty of Saratov (1963)
The war came to an end with the signing of the Peace of Saratov on May 18, 1963. Under the terms of the treaty, Persia was forced to cede the Tabarestan region, which had already been established as the Tabari National Republic (TNR) on June 1 of that year. Additionally, Persia was required to give up its rights to petroleum and natural gas reserves in the Caspian Sea.
Reza Bagher Tonekaboni, a graduate of Saint Petersburg National University who had maintained close ties with the Kiselev family since 1933, was appointed Chairman of the Tabari National Republic. As part of the treaty, Tabarestan was admitted as a full member of the International Republican Coalition on June 27, 1963.
Status of the formerly occupied territories The provinces of Erivan, Churs, and Azarbayjan have experienced extensive damage due to 681 days of occupation by Russian forces and domestic national republican insurgents. Over £500,000 has been delivered to the Persian government with the assent of the Secretarie of the India Office in order to help with the reconstruction of these areas.
In response to the growing demand for oil, the Organization of Democratic Nations resolved to incentivize several countries, including the Dutch East Indies, the Nigerian Republic, Equatoria, the United Gulf States, the States of Kamarupa, and the Kingdom of Tripolitania, to increase production over the next ten years. The British government also introduced a 9.8% oil export tariff to all states outside of the Organization with the Export Duties Act 1964, in an effort to conserve reserves of natural gas and petroleum.