United Gulf States
United Gulf States
|Location of United Gulf States|
|Government||Federal constitutional monarchy|
The United Gulf States, also abbreviated as UGS, is a federation of eleven principalities located in the Middle East, bordering Basrah to the north, Ha'il to the west, and Oman to the south. The UGS was established in 1960, amid the wave of decolonization from Great Britain.
Formation and Early History
The UGS was formed from several principalities formerly under British control. In response to external threats from Oman, Persia, and the British themselves, these entities coalesced into a unified federation. Each state maintained a level of internal autonomy while contributing to the collective strength of the federation.
The 11 principalities of the UGS
|Emirate||Ruling Family||Notable History|
|Abu Zaby||Al Issa family||The Bani Yas tribe expelled the Portuguese from Liwa in the 1660s. The tribe migrated towards the coast in the 1730s after an Omani invasion, establishing the coastal city of Abu Zaby.|
|Katar||Al-Sulayti family||Affiliated with the Al-Salihs of Kuwayt, they migrated to northern Katar in the late 18th and early 19th centuries due to interest in the pearling industry.|
|Kuwayt||Al-Salih family||The family gained dominance in Kuwayt in the 18th century.|
|Bahrayn||Al Fardan family||Had maintained good diplomatic relations with the now-defunct Persian Empire.|
|Al Katef||Al-Ilwa family||The eastern branch of the Mutayr tribe, they were given control of Al Katif by the British.|
|Al Hasa||Hithlayn family||The family is part of the Ajman tribe, historical enemies of the Saudis, and they control Al Hasa and the surrounding region. Al Hasa is the capital of the UGS.|
|Dibba||Jawasim tribe||Cooperated with the British during the British-Omani War in the 1880s. Their capital is Dibba, though their largest city is Ras Al Khaymah.|
|Umm al Kuwayn||Nakbiyin tribe||Historic allies of the Jawasim.|
Rise of Ahmad Al-Salih
The UGS underwent a significant shift in 1967 with the rise of Prince Ahmad bin Hassan Al-Salih of Kuwayt. Elected as Prime Minister of the UGS in 1967, Al-Salih advocated for the redress of historical exploitation by Britain, arguing that it had not provided adequate compensation following the region's independence. Al-Salih nationalized the oil industry in 1968. In response to this move, Britain imposed economic sanctions on the UGS in 1969, a decision that garnered mixed reactions among the Organization of Democratic Nations (ODN), particularly from post-colonial nations.
Jubayl Treaty and EJDO formation
In response to British sanctions, the UGS, along with other Middle Eastern nations, established the Jubayl Treaty in 1970. This treaty introduced a shared policy for Middle Eastern oil, aiming to augment profits for member countries and restrict British access to oil. The treaty's signatories further denounced Britain and withdrew from the ODN in the same year, triggering a ripple effect on oil prices and international relations.
Following the Jubayl Treaty, the Eastern Joint Development Organization (EJDO) was established in the same year with the UGS and Egypt at its helm. The EJDO sought to counteract Britain's economic dominance and advocate for the interests of its member countries.