From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty
Republic of the Rhine
Rhingish Republich
Largest CityCologne
Government TypeUnitary republic
LanguagesRheinish (official)
Low Rheinish

The Republic of the Rhine (Rheinish: Rhingish Republich), commonly known as the Rhineland, is a country in western Europe centered on and named after the Rhine River. The country is bordered anti-clockwise by the Netherlands, France, Switzerland, Austria, Saxony, and Hanover. Created as the German Confederation in the 1815 Treaty of Vienna, it became a centralised republic in the 1926.


Premodern history

Roman-German period (800-1818)

French Revolution

First Confederal era (1815-1878)

Second Confederal era (1878-1926)

Government and Politics


Standard Rheinish dialect

The First Frankfurt Orthographical Conference in 1827 began the process of creating a standard language for the German Confederation. Various dialects were considered, including Meusian, Colognian, and the Hessian dialect of Frankfurt, with the latter eventually being chosen and dubbed 'Standard Rheinish' (Rhingisher Volksmund). In 1833, the first dictionary was published. Despite its rapid development, Standard Rheinish was only used by 20% of the country's population until the late 19th century. By the dawn of the Great War, 48% of the country used the language, with almost 80% being able to comprehend it.

Due to substantial contact with France in the 19th century, Standard Rheinish incorporates several French loanwords. Increased socioeconomic contact with the British, the Dutch, and the Hanoverians in the 20th century has led to urban Rhinelanders extensively using English and Hollandic loanwords as well.

While the Volksmund operates on a national level, six dialects (namely Colognian, Meusian, Mosellian, Palatine, Swabian, and Westphalian) operate on a local level. Collectively, these seven dialects are known as Appel dialects, referring to their common spelling and pronunciation of the word for apple.

Local identities


Centered around the capital Frankfurt-on-Main, the people of Hesse are known for their contributions to the Volksmund, their fusion cuisine, traditional Hessian architecture, and the famed Frankfurt operas.


The Palatines populate the western Rhineland, with their largest city being Monnem. They are primarily known as a diaspora population, with significant amounts of Palatine Germans and their descendants living in New Netherland, Ireland, and Switzerland.


Mainly found in the southern provinces, the Swabians are the most distinctive ethnicity in the country. There exists a substantial Swabian diaspora in Romania, Illyria, and the Netherlands.

Rhinelander Jews

The Rhineland is considered a cradle of Ashkenazim culture in Western Europe and, along with Galicia & Rumelia, hosts one of Europe's largest and oldest Jewish populations. Frankfurt, Cologne, and most prominently Oldenburg serve as epicentres of Jewish-Rhinelander culture.


See also