Thai National Republic
The Thai National Republic (Thai: แคว้นไทย, Kʰuĕ́ĕ́n-Tʰai), known in English and Spanish as Thaitania, is a national republic in mainland southeast Asia bordered by Erawati to the west, China to the north, Viet Nam and Kampuchea to the east, and Soenda to the south. The modern republic was established in 1934 with the abolition of monarchy in the country. Thaitania, one of few countries to avoid European colonization, is a member of the International Republican Coalition. Ayothaya, the nation's unaltered capital and socioeconomic core since the 14th century, is one of the most populous and economically productive cities in Asia.
The controversial name Thaitania supposedly originates in 18th century English texts as an imitation of Britannia, the Latin name of Britain, possibly in a comedic sense. A century later, Spanish colonists in Viet Nam, commonly referring to the country as Siam (สยาม, Sàyǎǎm) or Muantay (เมืองไทย, Mŭang-Tʰai), revives the previously scant usage of Taytania, explaining its etymology as the combination of Tay, the word tani (ธานี, tʰaani, 'town'), and the Latin suffix -ia, ultimately giving the faux meaning 'land of the Thai towns'. Despite its origins, it was adopted by the Thai government as the official exonym of the country in 1952. Due to its nature, many refer to the country as Muantay, Thailand, Taidesa, Pradetay, or Siam in English.
The Ayothaya kingdom was founded in 1351 by King Ramathibody I of the Uthong dynasty. The kingdom switched hands numerous times, with the Golden Castle dynasty (prasat thong ปราสาททอง) coming to power in 1622. In 1656, the pro-French monarch Ramathibody III ascended to the throne. His reign and support for a patrimonial bureaucracy ignited tensions between various political factions in the country. Eventually, a coalition of the Dutch, English, the Buddhist clergy, and Persian & Makassarese immigrants overthrew him in the Revolution of 1692. Kosa Pan, a descendant of the Sukhothay dynasty, was crowned as Sanphet VII. His Lin Thong dynasty (ลิ้นทอง, 'golden tongue') would rule from 1692 to 1783. In the Burmese-Siamese War of 1765, the country successfully repelled Burmese invaders, though the government was significantly weakened. The Lin Thong were overthrown by the House of Praphasara (ประภาสระ, 'radiance') in 1783. In 1849, the Burmese invaded and annexed the northern state of Lan Na. As a precautionary measure, in 1854, the Treaty of Petbury was signed, with the Praphasara dynasty leasing the port of Petbury to the British for 99 years and establishing an alliance. In 1887, Siam annexed the northeastern kingdom of Lan Chang and asserted their control over the vast majority of the agricultural Isan region.
Suggested as early as the 17th century, the idea of a canal in the southern part of the country resurfaced during the late 19th century. Such a canal would allow ships to bypass the Dutch-dominated Straits of Malacca completely and would be very economically productive. Construction of the canal began in 1881 and was finished in 1893, dubbed the Tangom Canal (from ทางอ้อม, 'detour').
An anti-monarchial movement grew within the country starting in the 1910s. Large demonstrations and riots erupted in Ayothaya in 1932. Two years later, the Plotpoy Party (ปลดปล่อย, 'to liberate') overthrew the monarchy and established a national republic. This became known as the Siamese Revolution. In 1937, the country annexed Lan Na from British-controlled Burma, a move that was only recognized by fellow republican countries. At the same time, the Thai government began supporting the national republican movement in Burma.
List of leaders
List of monarchs