From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty
Chinese Republic

Flag of China
Location of China
Largest cityCanton
Official languagesChinese
Common languages
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Hokkien
  • Various others
Foreign languagesEnglish and Dutch
Establishment10 June 1931
• Establishment of the Ćin dynasty
221 BC
• Establishment of the Chinese Republic
• Reunification of China

China, officially the Chinese Republic (Chinese: 華民國, Hwá-mín-gwó) is a country located in eastern Asia, bordering Tibet, Serindia, and Erawa to the west; Thaitania and Viet Nam to the south; and Poeja and Mongolia to the north. To the east, the country shares maritime boundaries with Corea and Tauland. Since the unification of China in 1936, the national republic has consistently been ranked as the most populous nation in the world. It has been a member of the International Republican Coalition since its establishment in 1941.


Since the mid-19th century, the character Hwá (華) has superseded all others in reference to the concept of the Chinese people, state, or nation. Literally meaning 'beauty', it came to signify the civilized Chinese nation in contrast to the barbarian Ji surrounding it from at least the 3rd century BC. This is manifest in the country's long-form name Hwá-mín-gwó (華民國) and its most commonly used short form names Hwásià (華夏) and Zōnghwá (中華); the latter, Zōnghwá, is mainly used when it is necessary to differentiate the Chinese state itself from the concept of the Chinese nation as a whole.

With the advent of ethnocentric national republicanism in the region, Hwá came to be synonymous with notions of modern racial identity, with many including scholar Jü Sići equalizing it with the words Hàn (漢) and Táng (唐).


On 7 May 1931, the Russia-backed National Reformation Party overthrew the Ye dynasty, leading to the declaration of the Chinese Republic with the Duke of Ceng as President on 10 June. The 1947 Southwestern Restructuring Program, initiated by Chief General Secretary Su Peychin, led to the displacement or death of over ten million non-Hwa individuals, and was later condemned by the Organization of Democratic Nations in 1952, resulting in Su's removal and imprisonment in 1953.

China engaged in the Serindian Crisis from 1955–1964, annexing regions and reorganizing them into Gamsu Province by 1969. The 1966 Handan earthquake spurred public works projects criticized for benefiting southern Hakka politicians and corporations, leading to the rise of the anti-corporate New Loyalist Society and the election of Tooi Teeksim. The Kemo disaster in Corea in 1974 harmed Chinese fisheries, leading to naval skirmishes with Tauland until 1992. Anti-Russian sentiment surged in 1977, reviving the National Reformation Party, and by 1980, China refused Russia's request to boycott North American goods, preparing for potential conflict by stationing troops along the Mongolian border.

Government and Politics

China is a unitary parliamentary republic consisting of eighteen provinces and seven urban prefectures. The country's constitution is known as the Articles of Unification and was officially enacted by the 8 June 1931 Law, investing authority into the newly established tricameral National Parliament. Along with Tussenland, China is one of few republics which follow the Fusiemag ('fusion of powers') system due to the disproportionate power of the legislative branch.

The executive branch has two leaders. The President of the Republic is the head of state and is selected by a College of Electors whose members are chosen by provincial parliamentary bodies; the members of these bodies are in turn elected by eligible voters. The President appoints the Chief General Secretary, the head of government and chair of the General Secretariat, at their discretion. These two executives appoint civil servants, approve members of the judiciary, and serve as the Commander of the Armed Forces and Minister of the Armed Forces respectively.

First established by the Kanggwo Emperor in 1684, the Southern Study is one of the only imperial institutions that survive into post-Great War China. It functions as an independent advisory body to the President, with its members selected from a number of professional and educational organizations within and outside the country. While heavily affiliated with the executive branch, it is technically not considered part of the executive.

The legislature consists primarily of the National Parliament, is a tricameral body consisting of the General Chamber, the Senior Chamber, and the Censorial Senate. Additionally, the Liaison Office, consisting of a singular Liaison Officer appointed by the Chief General Secretary, is responsible for facilitating communication between the executive and legislative branches. China's judiciary is ultimately subject to the Censorial Senate which functions as the court of last resort and the administrative court, handling complaints against and supervising the government. Including the Senate, there are four basic tiers to the Chinese court system.

See also