From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty
Location of Serindia
Largest CityKashgar
Government TypeMonarchy
LanguagesTurki (official)

Serindia is a landlocked nation in Asia, bordering Russia to the north, Turkestan to the west, China to the east, and Tibet to the south.


In the Treaty of London (1892), the British and Russians agreed to cease expansion into Central Asia and recognize the newly sovereign state. In the aforementioned Treaty, the state was referred to with the European term Serindia, which combines the terms Seres and India.


Pre-modern period

The region of what is now Serindia was originally inhabited by Indo-European and nomadic tribes, who dominated the area until the establishment of a Chinese protectorate. Several Iranic, Mongolic, and Turkic kingdoms took root thereafter, often adopting Buddhism. This continued until a century of Tibetan and Chinese control of the region. In the mid-700s, Uyghur and Kirghiz states became dominant for centuries.

The Afrasyabids became the first Muslim power in Serindia and was shortly followed by the Mongol empire. Several successor khanates ruled until the early 18th century, when the Dzungar Oirats took over.

Qing rule

Dzungar Genocide

The modern Serindian state


Qing control over the region was weakened during the Canton War (1850-1858). By 1851, local nobleman Külüg Khan began consolidating his power in the Tarim Basin and in Pekiang. He rebelled against the Qing and established a Turkic-led state in the area with him serving as Khan.

The Great Game

The Western powers, starting in the 19th century, began to encroach on Qing territory. The Russians advanced from the north and the British extended their influence in Tibet and southern China. Külüg Khan established diplomatic ties with both nations and offered to join the anti-Qing, anti-Dutch coalition. This offer was eventually accepted and resulted in the the Treaty of London (1892), in which Serindia achieved widespread recognition as a sovereign state.


Regional classification

Serindia is considered as either part of Central Asia or East Asia, though many consider it as a cultural, racial, and geographic bridge between the two regions.

Government and Politics



See also