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Autonomous National Republic of Poeja
Flag Poeja ANR RTL.png
PoejaANR.jpgLocation of Poeja
Established1889 (Kingdom of Poeja)
1935 (Autonomous National Republic under Russia)
Largest CityHalbin
Government TypeConstitutional monarchy under a military regime
  • Corean (official)
  • Manchu
  • Mongol
  • Mandarin
  • Russian
CurrencyRussian ruble

Poeja (Hankoel: 부여; Handja: 夫餘; Russian: Буйе), officially the Autonomous National Republic of Poeja, is an subnational state under Russia. It is bordered by Corea to the south and China to the west. It was originally established as a puppet state of the Corean until it was ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Hansjang.


Premodern history

He Mosoe (해모수) founded the Poeja state around the same time as when the Western Han dynasty was established. China and Poeja maintained a good diplomatic relationship for centuries, with few conflicts in between. For 300 years after 200CE, Poeja faced attacks from nomadic tribes and their fellow Coreanic state, Ko-korjo. The state collapsed in 500CE, leaving behind several fragmented successor states. Migrants from Poeja migrated south and founded Pekdje, mixing with the peninsular Han people.

Poeja was part of the historical region known as Manchuria, the homeland various Jurchen clans.

Manchu period (1583-1889)

In the late 16th century, Nurhaci, leader of the Aisin-Gioro dynasty, united the Jurchen clans into a united Manchu identity. He and his son, Hong Taiji, declared the Qing dynasty in 1636. As the Qing consolidated control over China, the Manchurian region enjoyed a special status within the empire, until the late 19th century.

Over time, the identity of the Manchu became sinicized, in attempts of the Qing dynasty to assimilate themselves with the Han to increase their legitimacy. By the mid 19th century, many Manchu had already adopted many Han Chinese customs, languages, and surnames.

First Sino-Corean War

With the weakening of the Qing state during the 1850s, the Corean Tsjosjan was overthrown and replaced by the Sjakwang dynasty, founded by the House of Ki. The Qing dynasty declared war against the new dynasty, in what became known as the First Sino-Corean War, but ended in disaster after the Qing's allies, the Netherlands, refused to help them and instead supported Corea. The Qing's position was furthern weakened when Russia joined Corea and partitioned Manchuria between themselves.

In the war's aftermath, the southern part of Manchuria was ceded to Corea, and became the puppet kingdom of Poeja.

Corean period (1889-1936)

Corea's annexation of Poeja was immediately recognized by Russia, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and soon the rest of Europe. During Corean rule, the teaching of the Corean language was introduced to Poeja. In 1894, Corean Emperor Tedjo introduced a new script for writing Mandarin, using a modified version of the Corean Hankoel script that incorporated sounds and tones in Mandarin.

In the 20th century, the Corean government promoted and subsidized the immigration of Coreans to Poeja. This gave rise to the ubiquity of the Corean language in Poeja, and gave rise to the Poejan Corean dialect, heavily influenced by the Joekdjin Corean dialect and Mandarin. Poeja was a strategic point for the Coreans during the 2nd Sino-Corean War.

Poeja during the Russo-Corean War (1935-1936)

Poeja was a strategic location during the Russo-Corean War, nestled in between the Nationalist Republic of Russia and the Corean peninsula. By June 1935, Russian forces had overrun the Corean army defending Poeja. While in Poeja, the Russians worked with a network of republican collaborators and established a network of Poejan and Corean Republicans. In occupied Harbin, Republican Corean societies had formed under the guidance and principles of Russian National Republicanism.


Poeja, with its ethnically mixed population of Han Chinese, Coreans, and Manchus, was formally annexed into the Russian National Republic as an Autonomous National Republic (ANR). The Russians allowed several former administrators to administer the Poeja Autonomous National Republic. The Russians also allowed the continued use of the Hankoel script for the different Poejan languages, including Corean, Mandarin, and Manchu.


The ancient Poejan dialects
The Western style Joehwa Imperial Hotel in Kirim (by Kim Tsjin-soe, photograped 1932).

Poeja and other north Coreanic states spoke the Poeja languages, a group of close dialects that were related to the dialects of the southern Coreanic states. With the migration of the Poeja people south, these dialects mixed with their relatives to form Old Corean. The Manchu language has also been seen to have lasting influences from the Poeja languages and the Palhe language.

Corean dialects

Born of the Rjoekdjin and Hamgjang dialects, the modern Poeja and Yodong dialects of Corean contain influences from Manchu, Mongol, Mandarin, Dutch, and Russian. With the fall of the Sjakwang dynasty, these speakers coalesced around northern Corean cities like Kemo and Anboek, eventually bringing them closer to peninsular Corean dialects.

Poeja also has a sizeable minority of Russian speakers, as well as speakers of various Mongol dialects.


Population of Poeja
1932 1936 1937
Population Total 24,300,200 25,127,821 24,248,347
Chinese 78% 75.6% 73.1%
Corean 12% 11.1% 10.8%
Manchu 7% 7.8% 7.5%
Mongol 3% 3.3% 3.2%
Russian Less than 1% 1.1% 4.3%
Other 1% 1.1% 1.1%