From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty
Lombard Republic
Republega de' Lumbardìa
Location of Lombardy
Population12 million
  • Lombard
  • Lombard Scudo (LMS)

Lombardy, officially the Lombard Republic (Lombard: Republega de' Lumbardìa), is a southern European country rooted upon the Plain of the Po and bordered by Piedmont, Genoa, Switzerland, Venice, Austria, and Tuscany. Ruled by the Duchy of Milan for five hundred years, a liberal republic was founded in 1899.


Premodern history

After the collapse of the Roman empire, Lombardy was ruled by the Germanic Langobard state. It was followed by nominal rule of the Holy Roman Empire, an era marked by the success of numerous city-states unified under the Lombard League.

The Duchy of Milan was founded in 1395 by the Visconti dynasty. The Sforza family took over the area during the Renaissance. The area prospered for centuries, with duchies like Milan, Mantua, and Parma being centres of art, culture, science, and finance. By 1500, Insubria was the core of Lombardy. It was ruled by the Bourbon dynasty of France from 1499 till 1526, when it was transferred to Spain.

Second Bourbon era (1701-1814)

The Duchy of Milan was transferred to French control with the Treaty of Nîmes in 1699. Milan would remain in French hands until 1814, when they were defeated in the Augustine Wars.

Short 19th century (1814-1899)

Under the Treaty of Vienna, the Duchy was restored under the Sforza-Cesarini dynasty.

First Republican period (1899-1935)

In 1899, the Communard Revolution was successful, with the five-hundred year old Duchy being abolished.

Government and Politics



List of leaders

House of Habsburg

House of Bourbon

French First Republic

House of Sforza-Cesarini

The House of Sforza-Cesarini (Lombard: Cà de Sforza-Cesarini) are descendants of the ancient Sforza dynasty which ruled Milan until 1535 and kept Santa Fiora since. In 1673, Federico Sforza married heiress Livia Cesarini, absorbing her family's wealth. Their descendants took on prestigious positions in the Holy See, as well as the title Prince of Gonzano. In 1815, Prince Salvatore Sforza-Cesarini became Salvatore I of Milan.

  • Salvatore I (1815-1820)
  • Carlo II (1820-1844)
  • Carlo III (1844-1867)
  • Carlo IV (1867-1895)
  • Francesco III (1895-1898)
  • Salvatore II (1899)

See also