Spain

From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty
Spain
República Española
España
Motto"Plus Ultra" (Further Beyond)
EstablishedUnification of Castile & Aragon - 1479

First Constitution & centralization - 1878

Abolishment of the Monarchy - 1928
CapitalMadrid
Largest City
  • Madrid
Government TypeParliamentary Republic
Languages
  • Castilian (Spanish)
  • Catalan
  • Basque
  • Galician
CurrencySpanish Peso (ESP)

Spain (Spanish: España), officially the Spanish Republic (Spanish: República Española) is a country located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian peninsula. It is one of the more populous countries in Europe, and the fourth largest.

The nation holds sovereignty over insular territory including the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and the city of Ceuta in North Africa as well as the overseas Territory of Santa Apolonia in the Indian Ocean. Its metropolitan area extends from the Cantabrian Mountains in the north to the Straits of Gibraltar in the South and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Central Atlantic.

Mainland Spain only borders two nations: Portugal & France, which they have a long and tumultuous relationship with.

History

Spanish Empire

In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of their monarchs, Isabella I and Ferdinand II, respectively. 1478 saw the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands and in 1492, the combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada from its last ruler Muhammad XII, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia.

The year 1492 also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World. Columbus's first voyage crossed the Atlantic and reached the Caribbean Islands, beginning the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, although Columbus remained convinced that he had reached the Orient. Large numbers of indigenous Americans died in battle against the Spaniards during the conquest, while others died from various other causes. The Spanish settlement of the Americas started with the colonisation of the Caribbean. It was followed by the conquest of powerful pre-Columbian polities in Central Mexico and the Pacific Coast of South America. Miscegenation was the rule between the native and the Spanish cultures and people. An expedition sponsored by the Spanish crown completed the first voyage around the world in human history, the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation. The return route from the Philippines to Mexico made possible the Manila galleon trading route and the Spanish conquest of the Philippines.

The foundation and history of the Spanish Empire are intrinsically linked to that of the House of Habsburg. As a result of the marriage politics of the Catholic Monarchs, their Habsburg grandson Charles inherited in 1516 both Spanish thrones as Charles I of Castile and Aragon, solidifying the single monarchy of Spain.

Spain's 16th-century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571, and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada in 1588, in a series of victories against England in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604.

Spanish Succession Crisis (1701)

The Partition Treaties

As the Habsburg king of Spain, Carlos II, was nearing his heirless death, the First Partition Treaty was signed by England, the Dutch Republic, and France to settle the succession, agreeing that on the death of Carlos II, Prince Joseph Ferdinand, son of the elector of Bavaria, should inherit Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the Spanish colonies. Spain’s Italian dependencies would be detached and partitioned between Austria (to be awarded the Duchy of Milan) and France (Naples and Sicily). However, this plan did not push through following Joseph Ferdinand’s death in 1699.

A second treaty, signed in 1669, by England and France and in March 1700 by the Dutch Republic, awarded Spain and the Spanish Netherlands and colonies to Karl VI of Austria, second son of the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I, and Naples, Sicily, and other Spanish territories in Italy to France. Leopold, however, refused to sign the treaty, demanding that Charles receive all the Spanish territories intact.

Due to France’s negative prestige following their defeats at the hands of Britain and the Triple Alliance, Carlos II agreed to the second partition treaty, only on one condition: Spain must not be divided and all territory must go to Karl VI. However, once he was incapacitated due to his illness, under pressure from France, England and the Dutch Republic, Spain signed the treaty in 1700, and upon Carlos II’s death in 1701, Karl VI of Austria succeeded him as Carlos III, King of Spain. In order to appease his new subjects as well as his adversaries, the King would attempt to remodel and redefine Spain in the image of Habsburg Austria — a multiethnic empire consisting of various naciones (Castille, Aragon, Navarre, and Galicia), with their own unique institutions, united under one monarch and one faith.

Great Silesian War (1750 - 1755)

After resurrecting an old Brandenburg testamentary claim to Silesia and forming an alliance with France and other smaller German states, Prussia invaded Austrian Silesia in 1750. Bavaria, Saxony, and Sweden had supported the Franco-Prussian Entente while Britain had supported its Austrian ally. Spain, having a Habsburg monarch, and territories in the low countries, soon became quickly involved in the war. The Dutch Republic was also attacked by the French due to their interests in the region. Prince Maurice's War was the North American theatre of the Great Silesian War and was one of the largest colonial wars in North America, where the colonies of Britain, Spain, and the Dutch Republic were pitted against those of France and their native allies.

The war ended with a Franco-Prussian defeat and the signing of the Treaty of Vienna on 16 February 1755. Spain saw few successes in the American front of the war, and French forces even seized Santo Domingo. Elsewhere however, Spain made small gains, taking full control of the Principality of Andorra, which had been co-ruled by the French monarchs since medieval times, along with capturing the ports of Pondicheri and Chandernagor in India. In the resulting Treaty of Andorra (1756) Spain recognised French control of Santo Domingo in exchange for Andorra, the Indian ports and the island of Santa Apolonia along with its dependencies.

For Spain the war marked a turning point in its international relations with the Spanish empire being reoriented towards mutual cooperation with the British Empire, as opposed to the series of hostilities that marked the previous two centuries of their relationship. Additional expenses accrued in the war worsened the massive economic and debt crisis for the Spanish empire which precipitated both the Argentine Purchase and the reform of administration throughout the Spanish Empire.

Argentine Purchase

During the aftermath of the great Silesian war and Treaty of Vienna (1755), the British empire offered to buy the Governorate of the Río de la Plata (including the disputed region of the Banda Oriental) east of the Andes from Spain in return for a lump sum payment and forgiveness of debts incurred by the Spanish Crown during the war. On August 19th 1756 the Spanish Crown agreed to the terms sent by the British and on December 1st the colony was transferred to British sovereignty. The British motive for the purchase involves lack of opportunities for expansion in their North American holdings and a want to exert control over the important straits of Magellan.

Spring of Nations (1830s)

Starting in the early 1830s, southern and central Europe erupted into a wave of revolutions based upon liberalism, republicanism, and nationalism known as the Spring of Nations. Some of the earliest of these revolutions were in the Iberian peninsula, with revolutionaries calling for the Spanish and Portuguese empires to reform their political systems, and some revolutionaries going as far as calling for the abolition of the monarchies. The ideals of the Spring of Nations spread to the Spanish and Portuguese American colonies throughout the 1830s culminating in a series of (mostly unsuccessful) revolts in Puerto Rico, New Spain, Brasil, and New Granada. In the Viceroyalty of New Granada, there was a growing dissatisfaction amongst local merchants and criollo elites, as well as amongst the lower classes who've become limited in socio-political advancement due to the restrictive Spanish casta system.

Revolutions in the Spanish Americas

The Colombian Revolution started in 1836 with a series of liberal revolts in Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, and Maracaibo, which were brutally suppressed by Spanish forces. The heavy handed response to what had originally been simply calls for reform led to much resentment and increased support for the growing independence movement. In March of 1838, the Colombian Revolutionary Congress organized a militia and occupied the city of Medellín. By the end of 1839, the revolutionary congress was in control of most of Venezuela, Trinidad, the Colombian Pacific coast, and the Colombian highlands, with Spanish royalist forces being limited to the Atlantic coasts and the Ecuadorian highlands. In 1841 fighting slowed down in the Audiencia of Quito, with both sides unable to advance on the other. Additionally, international pressure started to favor the Colombian rebels, with the Dutch and French empires refusing to stop trading the insurgents. In October of 1842, Spanish forces retreated from their last strongholds in Barranquilla and Cartagena. In December, Spanish and Colombian diplomats signed the Treaty of Medellín (1842). The Spanish recognized the independence of New Granada but retained sovereignty and control over Quito, with the region being reorganized under the authority of the viceroy of Peru.

During the Spring of Nations throughout the 1830's Paraguayan nationalists started to agitate for independence. After the local Spanish army garrison in Asuncion withdrew in 1839 to focus on the Colombian Revolution Paraguayan republicans declared independence from the Spanish and formed the 2nd Paraguayan Republic. In 1842 after the Colombian revolution ended the Spanish asked the British to help retake Paraguay but the British refused due to ongoing colonial wars in Asia as well as local Carolinan support for the Paraguayan republicans. In 1846, after two unsuccessful expeditions to reclaim Paraguay from Peru, the Spanish empire recognized the independence of Paraguay in the Treaty of Buenos Aires and set the border at the Paraguay river.

Dutch-Spanish War (1850 - 1855)

The independence of Colombia and Paraguay was a heavy psychological blow to the Spanish Empire, shattering the belief that while minor colonies could be lost and gained, the Spanish Main would prevail. As such, the Spanish government felt they needed military victories in order to maintain their position among the great powers.

The ongoing Canton War provided a great opportunity to restrengthen their hold in mainland America and settle conflicting territorial claims in Tussenland and the Maluku islands. While the Netherlands was distracted with the Canton War against Britain & France, Spain declared a separate war against the Dutch. Despite the lackluster state of the Spanish navy, overwhelmed by the numerous fronts across the world, the Dutch surrendered in 1856. In the resulting treaty, the Dutch ceded a large portion of the Mississippi basin region to New Spain, and they were forced to release South Tussenland as an independent nation, effectively locking the Dutch out of the Gulf of Florida. In the East Indies, the Dutch ceded the Spice Islands (Maluku) to the Spanish. This soured relations between the Dutch and New Spain, which lasted even after Mexican Independence in 1881, and led to the Dutch-Mexican War (1901-1903).

Spanish Expansion in South-East Asia (1804 - 1880s)

Timor

Ownership of the Timorese Islands had switched hands multiple times throughout the 17th to 19th centuries. By the 18th century, both the Portuguese and the Dutch had already established a presence in Timor, and had competing claims in the region. It was not long however until the Portuguese neglected their colonial effort in Timor, and eventually decided to sell their claims to the Spanish in 1804, to prevent it from falling under Dutch hands. The Dutch would acknowledge Spanish rule after the Dutch-Spanish War (1850-1855), although disputes over the islands of Sumbawa and Lomboc would continue.

During Spanish rule, it was governed as a Captaincy-General under the viceroyalty of New Spain (1804 - 1872), and later, due to unrest in New Spain that would eventually lead to its independence, under the newly formed Viceroyalty of the Philippines (1872 - 1935). In 1910, the Spanish offered to purchase the islands of Sumbawa and Lomboc from the Dutch, backed by their existing claims on the island. The Treaty of Batavia was signed in 1911, and resulted in the formal handover of the islands to the Captaincy-General of Timor.

Establishment of the Viceroyalty of the Philippines

Administration of the Philippine islands had started to be considered a drain on the economy of Spain and New Spain by the mid-19th century. However, this perspective would change after the Dutch-Spanish War, with the acquisition of the Spice Islands and Papua, which led to  the Philippines being officially separated from New Spain and was promoted to a Viceroyalty in 1856.

With the overthrow of the Spanish monarchy during the Communard Wars in the 1870s, the Philippines were able to push harder for economic change then they ever were before, leading to Philippine ports being increasingly opened to world trade and its economy modernized.

Viet-Nam

Spain had long supported the Nguyen dynasty in the south of Viet Nam against the Dutch backed Trinh dynasty. After the Canton War the Trinh lost their main supporters leading to the Nguyen consolidating power with Spanish support. Looking to increase their foothold in Asia, which at the time was considered their most profitable and prestigious colonial venture, with the Spanish Americas increasingly being seen as chaotic and rebellious, in 1864 they forced the Dutch to cede the Port of Santa Maria in Tonquin to Spain. Fearing British expansion after the Anglo-Burmese & Anglo-Acehese wars of the previous decade, the Vietnamese kingdom sought protection from the Spanish and in 1878 Tonquin & Annam became Spanish protectorates. Nguyễn Phúc Mạnh, ruler of Tonquin converted to Catholicism, and was baptized as Don Carlos in 1884. During the reign of Phúc Mạnh, the Spanish built churches and conducted missionary activity, leading to the sizable Catholic minority in the northern parts of Vietnam in the modern day.

Communard Spain (1874 - 1878)

New ideas of social reform called communardism had rocked France in the 1870s. Coming from France's intellectual circles, the concept of communardism would win over the French public and lead to the bloody murder of King Louis in 1873. The heir died shortly after due to a falling accident. With the Bourbon line dying out, the radical communard party Société des Amis de la République occupied the power vacuum, established a revolutionary communard republic and attempted to spread their ideals to the rest of western Europe, leading to the invasion and annexation of the Belgic Duchy.

Spain supported Britain in the Coup raisonnable of 1877, which led to the overthrow of the radical communard faction. Despite this, numerous members of the Société des Amis de la République were able to escape to Spain. Here they met with leaders of the Sociedad de Comuneros (Society of Communards), the radical communard society of Spain, in Madrid. The Sociedad de Comuneros began plotting a coup against King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and was able to successfully overthrow the monarchy in 1877, establishing a short-lived communard republic in Spain. Ferdinand VII was forced to lead a government-in-exile in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. With the support of the British once again, the new but weak communard government of Spain was dismantled, and Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne. Despite this, the aftermath of the Communard Revolutions in Spain is directly linked to the Independence of Peru and Mexico.

After the fall of the communard government, a new constitution was adopted. Spain would become a constitutional monarchy with the establishment of a new Cortes-Generales as the legislature and the appointment of a Prime Minister. While many were hopeful this might lead to further democratization, it did not take long for the Spanish Crown to take advantage of the new constitution to undermine the regional councils of the four kingdoms in order to consolidate its power across the different entities that comprised the empire.

Collapse of the Spanish Americas

Peruvian-Spanish War (1875 - 1880)

During the Communard Wars, communard revolutionaries had occupied the majority of Spain, forcing the royal family and King Ferdinand VII to seek refuge in New Spain. While the king was staying in New Spain, he became interested in the colony's internal affairs. He instituted a series of reforms that sought to hispanicize New Spain's culture to a further degree and weakened the local elites' power in favor of giving greater control to the royal military and peninsular business elites in the king's inner circle. This increased tension between Spanish authorities and New Spain's population across social classes. This move raised tensions on the viceroyalty, and that same feeling would reach Peru.

In June of 1874, the Independent Council of Peru was formed. Led by viceroy José Mateo Pérez Avilés, it consisted of most of the local elites and non-peninsular military. For about a year, the council secretly discussed the path for independence and the future of the country. On May 16th of 1875, viceroy Avilés declared Peruvian independence. In the following month, most of the inner viceroyalty followed, with loyalist forces controlling only the coastlines. By 1880, Spain was in a terrible economic situation, the mainland was devastated by war, and adding to this, the feeling of New Spain soon revolting, which was considered to be far more valuable than Peru, worried the Crown. Too exhausted to continue fighting, Spain asked for peace on April 20th 1880, recognizing it officially in February 1881. On March 4th 1881, viceroy Avilés was declared king of Peru.

Mexican Independence War (1881 - 1884)

Over the 19th century, New Spain had become economically self-sufficient, while Spain had been increasingly dependent on New Spain's resources to fund their empire, leading to a period of increased dissatisfaction of local elites and businessmen starting from the 1860s. These tensions soon came to a boiling point after King Ferdinand VII was ousted by the Communard Wars and forced to flee to New Spain, where he quickly became involved in local affairs, attempting to increase the power of the peninsular elites and the Crown.

The Mexican Empire in 1895

When the King and the royal family returned to Spain in 1878 following the end of the Communard Wars, the Viceroy of New Spain, Jorge González de Güemes y Horcasitas, started to consolidate support within the New Spanish elite and amongst local military officers to declare independence. In early 1881, the King caught wind of the Viceroy's sedition and ordered the Spanish royal army to arrest him and sent another viceroy to replace him. When the new viceroy arrived in New Spain, he was arrested by González and the local army, who refused the King's orders and pledged loyalty to González. The following day, on Feb 3rd, 1881 González declared himself emperor of an independent Mexico.

Learning González's declaration of a Mexican Empire, the King was furious and pledged to retake the colony, leading to the Mexican Independence Crisis. However, the Communard Wars had left the Iberian peninsula devastated, and small pockets of communard resistance continued in the countryside.

Additionally, Spain borrowed money from Genoese and British banks to rebuild after the war but defaulted on the payments within a year, which led to an economic crisis. As such, retaking New Spain and its abundant resources became of vital importance. The Spanish army set out several expeditions to retake Mexico in late 1881 and again in 1882, but they were repelled by the newly formed Mexican army each time. With a mounting economic crisis, guerilla fighting in the nation, and the inability to militarily take back New Spain, the Spanish crown recognized the Mexican empire in 1884.

Cuban Revolt (1885 - 1894)

After the loss of Peru and Mexico, in an attempt to placate independence groups, the Spanish Crown unilaterally granted Cuba, along with Florida and Puerto Rico, Royal Dominion status, with a new position of governor general for the semi-autonomous Dominions. However, in Cuba this did very little to pacify the revolutionary sentiment, as the Spanish still held near complete control over Cuban plantations and the promises of greater autonomy much like Puerto Rico had not been kept due to Cuba's greater economic importance.

The Cuban war for independence began in 1885 with a series of rural uprisings which then quickly turned to guerilla warfare as Cuban rebels used hit and run tactics to wear down Spanish forces. It didn't take long for the Cuban elite to join the rebels, seeing an opportunity to free themselves from Spanish oversight. With support from Britain, which started to covertly arm the Cuban rebels, in 1894 Spanish forces were finally expelled from the country after 9 years of grueling warfare. The first republic of Cuba was then proclaimed with British backing, although Spain would refuse to recognise the new republic until the late 1920s.

Katipunan Insurrection (1896 - 1897)

Philippine revolutionaries were inspired by the Communard Revolutions that overthrew the Habsburg monarchy and triggered the independence of Peru and Mexico, and talks of revolution began to spread. Books like Crisostomo Ibarra´s No me toques (1887) and El Filibusterismo (1891) criticizing the declining Spanish rule in the Philippines would inspire, along with the Communard Revolution, and Mexico's War of Independence, Tagalog Revolutionary Mayo Pag-Asato create the revolutionary organization Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan, simply known as the Katipunan. The Katipunan would reach out to the Corean and Mexican Governments for funding and support which would allow them to spread out not only in the Philippine Islands but also throughout the Moluccas, Papua, and even Vietnam.

However, the Katipunan was far from being fully ready when the organization was exposed to the Spanish in 1896 by one of its disgruntled members. Mayo would launch his revolt ahead of what had originally been planned, seizing the town of San Juan Del Monte from Spanish forces. Other provinces would soon join the revolution. Mayo's own campaign would be cut short in only a week, however, as after a disastrous defeat in Laguna he would be captured by Spanish loyalists and executed. After his death, Jacinto, the Katipunan's vice supremo, would take the reins of the revolution.

Despite the numerous foreign backers, the revolutionaries were caught unprepared for open conflict, and with numerous Spanish reinforcements returning from failed expeditions against Peru, Mexico and Cuba, the rebels were soon on the back foot, as the Spanish captured most rebel strongholds and retook large swathes of the countryside.

Treaty of Malolos

With Spain now beginning to gain the upper hand, the revolutionaries agreed to a ceasefire. In the 1898 Treaty of Malolos the revolutionary leadership left for exile in China with allowances from the Spanish Government under the agreement that Spain would introduce most of the reforms the revolutionaries listed, but when Spain failed to implement the reforms, some remaining Katipunan loyalists would continue fighting the Spanish.

Fighting would drag on until 1916, when the last revolutionary leaders were finally captured and executed. Despite the Spanish victory, these revolts would indirectly pressure the Spanish to democratize their rule, and the local councils that emerged would be instrumental in the foundation of the Philippine Republic.

Moroccan Protectorate & Sand War (1903 - 1921)

[To be developed]

Papal Exile in Spain (1909)

In 1903, food shortages sparked riots across the Papal States. Demonstrations by citizens, peasants, and workers increasingly grew violent as the economic situation worsened,leading to the Venetian army invading the Papal States in 1908 due to security concerns, occupying the Adriatic provinces. In the following weeks, the food riots became a famine, and civil unrest became a rebellion as radicals advocated for the abolition of the State of the Church and its replacement with a democratic republic. In August of 1908, Pope Boniface X was assassinated, consequently triggering waves of violence across the country. As a result, the Roman Curia, several cardinals, and members of the Papal nobility fled to Spain, where they were welcomed by King Ferdinand VIII.

In 1909, the Roman Curia, led by the newly elected Pope Pope Callixtus IV and King Ferdinand VIII signed the Treaty of Pontevedra, allocating several properties in Santiago de Compostela to the Holy See, including the Cathedral of Santiago, Gelmírez Palace, and Fonseca Palace, forming what is known as Terra de Santiago. The treaty however was made as a temporary solution, with many in the College of Cardinals hoping that the Latin Republic would eventually collapse and Austrian forces would restore the State of the Church after the Alps War (1911-1912), but due to the indecisive end of the conflict this never came to be. As such, the treaty never fully defined the sovereignty and independence of the Holy See, leading to it being variously classified as having no sovereignty, to being an independent non-state actor, to being a sovereign state.

Regardless of its undefined status, the Holy See continued to operate after the abolition of the Spanish monarchy, with the new republican government opting to maintain the treaty, although they did officially recognize the Latin Republic. Despite this point of contention, Spain remains faithfully Catholic and to this day the Holy See continues to act as an independent entity.

Everglades War & Floridan Independence (1923 - 1927)

As with most Spanish colonies at the end of the 19th century, class and ethnic tensions had been present in Spanish Florida, with western Floridians feeling increasingly marginalized by the consolidated economic and political power of the elites of San Agustin. These tensions came to a head after the European Economic Crisis (1922-1928), where many Floridans were forced to sell their land holdings and sharecropping contracts to wealthy northeastern North American businessmen. This, combined with decreased global prices for cotton and increased food import prices, led to a sharp increase in local food prices and a growing political discontent amongst the poor.

This discontent came to a head after a bread riot in Tahensa, which in turn led to a rebellion in the city against Spanish and Dominion forces. The rebellion quickly spread into the countryside of western Florida where sharecroppers threw down their tools and took up arms against the Spanish. At this point Floridan rebels weren't actively republican, but instead were focused on improving their quality of life and with issues of economics and labor relations. The Spanish Dominion government in San Agustin however completely rejected their demands and struck back at the rebels with increasing hostility. By the winter of 1923 the rebellion had spread to central Florida and the peninsula. Fearing that the Dominion didn't have the ability to effectively deal with the rebels, the Spanish Crown reinstated conscription and sent troops to help suppress the rebellion. During the next year of fighting the rebels became increasingly a guerilla force that sought to wage a protracted war of attrition using hit and run tactics, their popularity with the countryfolk and knowledge of the local terrain to great effect. In 1925, fearing Mexican involvement, the government of New Netherland declared support for the Spanish Dominion government and started to give support in the form of aerial scouting and economic funding to the Spanish war effort. Despite New Netherland support, fighting became increasingly brutal, with alarming numbers of casualties as the Spanish became increasingly desperate to maintain their last hold on the American mainland.

After the fall of the historic port city of Santa Cruz to the rebels on March 9th 1927, the government of New Netherland turned against the war and began withdrawing its forces. This forced the Spanish government to call up reserve troops to be sent to Florida. In response, massive protests erupted across the country, and the republicans called for a general strike. On March 23, troops on the port of Cadiz refused to board ships headed to Florida and mutinied, joining protesting workers. The Guardia Real would put down the revolt after a week of street fighting, which resulted in 204 civilian casualties, earning it the name of the Semana Trágica (Tragic Week). Acknowledging defeat, after weeks of negotiation, the Spanish government agreed to withdraw and recognise Floridan independence on April 12. Likewise, they finally recognised the Cuban Republic, which had been practically independent since 1894.

Spanish Republic & Decolonisation

Republicanism in Spain

After the communard government fell in Spain, a new more democratic constitution was adopted in 1878. Spain became a constitutional monarchy with the establishment of a new Cortes-Generales as the legislature and the appointment of a Prime Minister. By the turn-of-the-century anti-colonialism and republicanism started to take root within the circles of Spanish intellectuals and reformers. This ideological shift was inspired by the failed Tulip Uprising a decade ago in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Eventually, by the 1920s, the need for the Spanish Monarchy became a point of national debate. In 1927 with the defeat of the Spanish in the Floridan War of Independence, the legitimacy and prestige of the Spanish Monarchy tanked and the nation saw increasing pressures for the monarchy to reform. Ultimately, the multiple radical reforms were passed, most notably the dismantling of the centuries-old Habsburg monarchy and the establishment of the Spanish Republic in 1928.

Decolonization of the Spanish Empire (1929-1935)

Map of Spanish decolonization

The new Spanish Republic pushed for the decolonization of the remaining colonies in Spain in order to shift efforts of development domestically. Referendums were held in the colonies in 1929, offering the local assemblies the following options:

  1. Full Independence (Puerto Rico, Philippines, Viet-Nam, Timor)
  2. Become semi-autonomous Dependent Territories of Spain (Spanish Guinea, Pondicherry, Chandernagor)

The colonies that chose complete independence were given a five-year transitionary period, in which the local administrative apparatus was being prepared for independence. and a constitution is to be drafted. The Spanish Republic began renegotiating with the Moroccan Protectorate, which culminated in the termination of the Protectorateship on March 5, 1933.

La Hispanidad

To foster continued good relations and cooperation with the former colonies, La Hispanidad was formed. The organization's roots come from a bilateral agreement between Puerto Rico and Spain made in 1930. The other colonies expressed interest in entering such a pact with Spain. As a result, the Spanish Republic revisted and reworked the guidelines and terms on their agreement with Puerto Rico, to be more inclusive to the other colonies. In 1931, a framework for an intergovernmental organization was drafted by representatives of the colonies, Puerto Rico included. The new framework was later ratified in 1932, and the new organization was called La Hispanidad, and consisted of Spain, the Philippines, Timor, Viet-Nam, and Puerto Rico. Immediately after Moroccan independence in 1933, they were also admitted into La Hispanidad.