Republic of New Netherland
Republÿck Nieuw Nederlandt
Anthem: Bewape de Amerikaeners
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||English (in New Anglia)|
|Religion||Reformed Church |
• Upper house
• Lower house
|Currency||New Netherland daelder|
New Netherland (Amerikaens: Nieuw Nederlandt), officially the Republic of New Netherland, is a republican nation located in northeast America. It is bordered by New England to the northeast, New France to the northwest, Tussenland to the west, and Virginia to the south. The country originated as a Dutch colony in the early 17th century, eventually achieving independence during the Augustine Wars and finally becoming a democratic state in the Revolution of 1903.
The first use of the name 'New Netherland' to describe the country is generally attributed to Dutch explorer Cornelius Jacobsen May, who had used it on survey maps during the expeditions of 1611-1614. In Latin, the nation's name is usually rendered as Nova Belgica or less commonly, Nova Hollandia. In the French language, Nouvelle Hollande has become the predominant term.
Members of the United New Netherland Company established settlements around modern New Amsterdam in the early 17th century in order to participate in the North American fur trade until the company's dissolution in 1618. Three years later, the Dutch West India Company (WIC) was established and was soon followed by the appointment of Cornelius Jacobsen May as the first Director of New Netherland in 1624. In 1629, the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions was established the longstanding feudal patroonship system in an effort to organize the colonization of the area.
As the population of the colony grew, people became dissatisfied with the rule of the WIC. Director Willem Kieft began a war with the Lenape in 1643 against the wishes of the Council of Eight Men, a board of citizens and early form of representational democracy in New Netherland. As a consequence of the disarray in the colony, new director Peter Stuyvesant allowed the formation of the Council of Nine Men was established in 1647, led by lawyer and recent arrival Adriaen van der Donck. The Nine Men signed and submitted the Remonstrance of New Netherland and the occurrences there in 1649, advocating for the reform of the colony's management. Stuyvesant was intent on suppressing any call for change, leading to van der Donck arriving in the Netherlands in 1652 to personally champion his ideas. Four years later in 1656, the Municipal Charter was granted to New Netherland. Adriaen van der Donck replaced Stuyvesant as Director to the satisfaction of many colonists.
The province of New Netherland experienced exponential growth after the 1656 Charter. Land law reform, the arrival of more immigrants, the democratization of the government, and large changes to the justice system all occurred in quick succession over the following years. In talks with the Hödenoshieoné, the 1658 Treaty of Perpetual Alliance was signed. The following year, the innovative paramilitary Komando system was established under the auspices of Paulus van der Grist in order to defend the colony against foreign encroachment.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War broke out in 1665 against the Kingdom of England and their colonies in North America. After two years of battle, New Netherland emerged victorious, successfully annexing the English colonies of Maryland and Connecticut. The Treaty of Breda was signed by Director Jacob van Couwenhoven in 1667, ensuring the country's survival for centuries to come.
As the Silesian War erupted in Europe in the mid 18th century, Prince Maurice's War erupted in the Americas. Hans Theodor Adams, considered one of the greatest leaders of the country during the colonial period, was appointed Director in 1750. The conclusion of the war in 1755 guaranteed New Netherland's influence over the Hödenoshieoné Confederacy in the west, decisively preventing any French interference with the government's expansionist plans. The New Netherlander Komando paramilitaries gained valuable experience during this war and were remembered for the failed Siege of Mont Royal in the winter of 1752. Along with leading the country during the war, Director Adams compiled the Köpmanswetbück in 1762, the first legal code in New Netherland's history and the mother of Amerikaener commercial law.
Throughout the remainder of the 18th century, New Netherland was plagued with disputes between various patroons and the continuation of their exploitative practices. In 1786, radical Director Sibren van Heemskerck approved the Statute on the Rights of Patroons, stripping the patroons of much of their absolute autonomy and centralizing the state under the authority of the Director. In 1792, the Military Assimilation Ordinance was issued by Heemskerck's successor Eleazar Henrÿcksz. The Ordinance bought out the vast majority of private militias in the country and established a regular standing army at the behest of the Director while simultaneously increasing tax rates on patroonships.
The Augustine Wars triggered political tensions in New Netherland as well. In 1795, the Prince of Orange had ordered the various rulers of the Dutch Republic to accept British rule in order to avoid French annexation in a compilation of letters, later known as the Kew Letters. This event divided political loyalties in New Netherland; the Loyalists were repulsed by the Prince's order and remained faithful to the sovereignty of the Dutch Republic, contrary to the Orangists, who had accepted the order and were willing to accept British occupation. Director Henrÿcksz was a staunch Orangist and had taken steps to invite British forces into the country, triggering the violent revolt of the Loyalist Particularists. In April 1796, military leader Claes van Beeke and members of the Council of Nine were arrested by the New Netherland government.
Relying on the support of the new French republic, the Loyalist forces led by Marÿn van der Beeke (who was declared leader of the country on 17 September 1796) repelled a British invasion from New England the same year. This conflict, known as the Autumn War, continued until 1798, when New Netherland's borders were finally secured. As stadtholder, van der Beeke enacted a new constitution in 1801. His successors, Isaac Kuyter and Hendrick I van Ackerhuys, consolidated the power of the new government by abolishing slavery to protect peasantry in 1813, annexing the Hödenoshieoné in 1816, and issuing the Decree on Succession in 1835, making the stadtholdership a hereditary office.
Over the new few decades, the country entered and lost the Canton War, engaged in the Battle of Connecticut with New England in 1853, purchased the islands of Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire from the Netherlands in 1861, and established a second constitutional government in 1870 after the death of Lodewÿck van Ackerhuys and a failed coup d'état. Seven stadtholders served under the second Constitution, ending with the Meerenlander politician Jan Theodorus de Gelüs-Clérisseau. The Dutch-Mexican War of the early 20th century eventually triggered the Revolution of 1903, resulting in the deposition of Gelüs-Clérisseau and the ratification of a democratic constitution in 1903 under the first raedpensionaris of New Netherland, Mees van Haerst of the immensely popular Unity Party.
From 1905, New Netherland asserted its independence against the Netherlands in the Quasi-War, leading to the victory of the Progressive Party in the elections of 1911. After the outset of the European Economic Crisis, the government of Maurits Thomas Hudson took action to support Spain against Floridian revolutionaries during the Everglades War of the 1920s. The country's involvement in the war, perceived as wasteful and unnecessary, led to the election of the Free Destiny Party in 1927, which advocated for the expansion of government and the reformation of the education system. In 1931, party member Jan Kaspar Knip was elected as raedpensionaris. Knip pioneered the Anti-Atlanticist ideology, advocating for the complete independence of American nations. New Netherland supported insurrections in the Virginian Coup of 1934 and supported New England in its fight against British conscription policies.
During the Great War, the nation was invited by dictatorial France to join the Tripartite Coalition but had refused, unwilling to enter a war with Tussenland. Raedpensionaris Knip also actively supported the independence of New England during the late 1930s. The Free Destiny continued to rule with the election of Abraham Boot in 1939. The Party was defined by their crackdown on organized criminal gangs known as simmorias. In 1943, opposition parties formed the United Patriotic Front in response to Free Destiny's failures. Frank Zuylen came into power in 1943, promising to restrict immigration and adhere to an illiberal economic agenda. As a result of Zuylen's policies, the September 1946 Workers' Strike triggered the rapid fall of the Front, who were soon replaced by the Free Destiny Party once again. In 1951, New Netherland became a founding member of the Association of North American Nations.
Government and Politics
|Constitution||Constitution of 1903|
|Supreme court||High Council of New Netherland|
New Netherland is a semi-decentralized unitary parliamentary republic comprising of eight provinces, a capital district, and an overseas territory. The head of government and the head of state are manifested in one person, the Raedspensionaris, who is accountable to the States-General. The state is subject to four supreme laws established in the early 20th century. the Constitution of 1903, the Codex novus belgicus civilis, the Köpmanswetbück, and the Penal Laws of 1915.
The Raedpensionaris has been the chief executive of the country since 1903, residing in the Unity Palace on Staten Island. Typically the leader of the largest party in the States-General, they are directly accountable to the legislature and may have their entire administration dismissed by the legislature. The term limit is two terms of four years each, for a total of eight years.
The Cabinet, headed by the executive, is the primary executive organ consisting of top-level government departments and ministries. Alongside the Cabinet, the Council of State (Amerikaens: Raed van State) serves as an advisory body to the Raedpensionaris. Independent of both bodies, the Fiscael serves as the main attorney and legal advisor of the executive branch of government — a position comparable to the Attorney-General in the Anglo-Saxon tradition.
The States-General of New Netherland (States-Generael) is a bicameral legislature consisting of two distinct bodies. The First Chamber (Îrst Kamer) consists of 40 members. Each province elects five members to this Chamber The Second Chamber (Twîd Kamer), also known as the House of Burghers, is a 150-seat body. They are elected by proportional representation in a single nationwide constituency. The leader of the largest party is appointed as Chairman of the Second Chamber by the Raedpensionaris.
The judicial system of New Netherland is divided into three tiers, originally based on the early courts of colonial New Netherland in the early 17th century under the Dutch West India Company.
|Third-level||Boroughs (Stadtsdêls)||Communes (Dorps)|
New Netherland consists of eight provinces. Every province has automatically relinquished legislative and judicial supremacy to the central government but maintains autonomy in the executive realm. The provincial stadtholder is considered the primary executive of the province and communicates directly with national authorities. Appointed by the Second Chamber of the States-General, they chair a fifteen-member executive council which is elected every three years through popular vote. Each province is also designated certain responsibilities by the Constitution of 1903, including urban planning, taxation, health policy, public services, specific cultural and linguistic policies, as well as the financial management of municipalities.
|South Oudeland||SOL||Nassou||New Pavonia|
|New Anglia||NAG||Güdehöp (Hartford)||New Haven||1668|
|Aruba, Curaçao & Bonaire||ACB||Willemstadt|
|New Amsterdam||NAF||New Amsterdam||1624|
New Netherland maintains diplomatic relations with a significant number of countries. It is a founding member of the Association of North American Nations. The country is also one of the most influential countries in the Batavosphere, often competing with the Netherlands in achieving cultural dominance.
|Armed Forces of New Netherland|
|Headquarters||Egmont, North Oudeland|
The New Netherlands armed forces (Nieuw-Nederlandse Krÿgsmaegte ) are the military and paramilitary forces of NNL, under the Raad der defensie as supreme commander. They consist of the NNL Army (Landmag), NNL Navy (De Staatse Vloot, the NNL Air and Space Force (Lugmag), the national commando service (Kommando Dienst) which is the reserve, and the Military Police called the National Guard ( Nationale Garde), which also fulfils civil police duties in the rural areas of NNL. Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and one of if not the strongest of America’s. In total including all branches and reserves, the krÿgsmaegte has a total of 1.3 million under its umbrella, 390.000 of them are on active duty (excluding the National Guard). The Krijgmagte is one of the largest civilian employers within NNL either directly or indirectly as it oversees a fast military-industrial complex employing some 700.000 people in one way or another.
While the National Guard is an integral part of the NNL armed forces (Guardsmen are career soldiers), and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces, it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.
When acting as a general-purpose police force, the Nationale Garde encompasses the counter-terrorist units of the Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National guard (Parachute interventie groep), the National Guard Intervention Group (Interventie Groep), the Search Sections of the National Guard (Nationale Recherce), responsible for criminal inquiries, and the Mobile Brigades of the National Guarde (Mobiele eenheden) which have the task to maintain public order and intervene if local police forces cannot maintain order. A special unit of the national guard is attached to protecting valuable and high-ranking politicians and protecting the national assembly and other important buildings that house the Republic her institutions.
The krÿgsmaegte posses a wide variety of intelligence services the most notable of them being the CID or Centraale Inlichtingen Directoraat (Central intelligence directorate) which is responsible for foreign military intelligence and reports directly to the chief of the general staff. The other intelligence agency often simply called the Blauwe wacht or “Dienst van binnenlandse veiligheid” is responsible for intelligence in the interior and falls under the national guard. A notable aspect of the intelligence apparatus and the military as a whole is that it all reports to the chief of the general staff, who in turn reports to the Raad der Defensie, rather then it reporting to the elected head of government.
Nieuw Nederlandt is often considered one of the few nations in America that developed its nuclear capability independently of other nations. It maintains a sizeable nuclear arsenal while it never openly admits that it has it it’s considered an open secret. Its nuclear forces in turn fall under the Air force and the Navy depending on the delivery platform. NNL maintains one of the largest arsenals of biological agents and chemical weapons, with some saying it is the largest in America and of the northern hemisphere. This has however never been confirmed by any credible sources.
Nieuw Nederlandt has a major military industrial complex, with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world. Its industries have produced such equipment as the Specht fighter series, Roodkop multirole fighter, the Donck class aircraft carrier, the Exocet missile, and the Roosevelt tank among others.
NNL has noted that it has one of the more robust and domestically capable military-industrial complexes in the world. Developing everything from tanks to jets to missiles and space-based capabilities. It has been a world leader for example in jet technology ever since the 1960s being the first nation to put a so-called “stealth” aircraft into service. NNL is a major arms seller, with most of its arsenal's designs available for the export market with the notable exception of nuclear-powered devices.
NNL has consistently developed its cybersecurity capabilities, which are regularly ranked as some of the most robust of any nation of the world.
Culture in New Netherland is primarily of Western, and more specifically, Dutch origin, but its influences include European, Afro-Amerikaner, Native-Amerikaner and Asian cultural aspects to varying degrees. It also has its own distinct social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect, music, arts, social habits, cuisine, and folklore. New Netherland is often seen as the benchmark of Amerikaener culture due to its dominant position within the Amerikaener political, cultural and social sphere and its leading role within ANAN. It is one of the few nations where cultural traits are seen as more important than ethnic traits in regards to citizenship. It’s well known for its militarism, love of parties, love of drinking, and refusal to give up under any circumstances.