New Netherland

From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty
Republic of New Netherland

Republiek Nieuw-Nederlandt
Flag of New Netherland
Flag
Motto: "Bewapen de Amerikaeners"
Location of New Netherland
Capital
and largest city
New Amsterdam
Official languagesAmerikaens
Recognised regional languagesEnglish (in New Anglia)
Religion
Calvinism
Catholic Church
Lutheranism
Anabaptism
Others
GovernmentRepublic
LegislatureStates-General
Upper Chamber
Lower Chamber
Establishment1795
CurrencyNew Netherland daelder

New Netherland (Amerikaens: Nieuw-Nederlandt), officially the Republic of New Netherland, is a republican nation located in north-eastern America. It is bordered by New England to the northeast, New France to the northwest, Tussenland to the west, and Virginia to the south.

History

The colony was founded by the Dutch West India Company in the early 1600s to capitalize on the North American fur trade, with the establishment of various trading outposts in the north, and the settlement of Nieuw-Amsterdam in the Manhattans' island. Geared towards trade, New Netherland did not experience the same settler growth that her neighbors (New England, Maryland, and Virginia) experienced during the 17th century. However, efforts have been made to increase settlement, such as the introduction of Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, which established the patroon system, where land would be granted to whoever could settle at least 50 people in New Netherland.

As the population of New Netherland grew, the people were becoming more disenchanted with the governance of the Dutch WIC over the colony. In order to appease the colonists, the Dutch WIC had convened multiple councils composed of colonists to advise the Director-General. However, the advice of these councils were often ignored by the Director-General. This disgruntlement was amplified when a Director-General, Willem Kieft, started a war against the natives over stolen pigs in 1643, against the wishes of the colonial council.

As a response to Kieft’s war, the Board of Nine, led by colonist and lawyer Adriaen van der Donck, penned a complaint to the Dutch Republic against the unresponsiveness of the Dutch WIC to the colonists’ rights and requests. This document was called the Remonstrance of New Netherland, and had condemned the WIC for mismanagement and demanded full rights for the colonists as citizens of the Netherlands.

The Charter of 1656

The Dutch WIC responded to the complaints by appointing Peter Stuyvesant as the Director-General. During this time, land ownership regulations were loosened and liberalized, and the province experienced exponential growth. However, multiple complaints were still made against the WIC’s control and governance over the province. This had led Adriaen van der Donck to return to the Dutch Republic once again and seek redress. After years of political and legal wrangling, the Dutch Republic finally came down against the Dutch WIC and decided to grant New Netherland a new municipal charter in 1652, which granted them a popularly elected government to govern internal affairs.

In OTL, this charter never took effect because of the outbreak of the First Anglo-Dutch War. The States-General of the Dutch Republic feared experimentation with local government in a time of war, and needed the close cooperation of the West India Company (practically a branch of the military) in the struggle, and so rescinded their decision. Defeated, van der Donck tried to return to New Netherland, but was blocked because of the destabilizing effect of his activism. The charter was never revisited after the war and never granted to New Netherland.

In this timeline, however, due to the continued activism of Van der Donck in the Dutch Republic after the war, the States-General proceeded with the municipal charter and established a popularly elected government in New Netherland in 1656, with Van Der Donck as the leader. This charter also barred the Dutch WIC from internal affairs and governance. Instead, the Dutch WIC began shifting their interests towards trade with the Iroquois, and began establishing forts in the west. This land would eventually expand and would become known as the Dutch Tussenland, which was ruled by the Dutch WIC.

Independence

New Netherland had achieved independence during the Augustine Wars, when the French Republic had invaded the Dutch Republic and forced the Dutch stadtholder into exile in Britain. Directly after his arrival in England, the Prince wrote a number of letters (known as the Kew Letters) to the governors of the Dutch colonies, including New Netherland, instructing them to hand over their colonies to the British "for safe-keeping." Although demoralizing, the colonial government of New Netherland complied and declares its surrender. But before Britain had put its troops in New Netherland, a coup against the New Netherland colonial government had taken place, overthrowing the Director-General and putting him under arrest for treason. A provisional government had been set up by the patroons. Britain demands the provisional government's surrender, but the patroons had refused, plunging them to the Independence War (then known as the Autumn War). However, as the situation worsens in Europe for Britain and her allies, the British withdrew from the Autumn War and signed a treaty with New Netherland, which would guarantee their independence in the coming future years.

New Netherland in the 20th century would be dominated by different parties throughout different periods of time. During the Great War, New Netherland was invited by France to join the Tripartite Coalition, but refused. In 1951, New Netherland became a founding member of the Association of North American Nations.

Government and Politics

New Netherland is a semi-decentralized unitary parliamentary republic comprising eight provinces, a capital district, and an overseas territory. The head of government and the head of state are manifested in one person, the Raedspensionaris, who is accountable to the States-General. The state is subject to the laws laid out in the Constitution of 1903.

Executive

The Raedspensionaris, a relatively new office inspired by the 17th century Dutch governmental position, has been the chief executive of the country since 1903, ending the era of Stadtholders. They are typically the leader of the largest party in legislature and governs from the Unity Palace in Staten Island, New Amsterdam. Being the head of state, government, and the Admiral-General of the Armed Forces, the Raedspensionaris is directly accountable to the States-General and may have their entire incumbent administration removed by majority vote. Only two terms, each of four years, are permitted, for a total maximum of eight years.

The the Council of State (Amerikaens: Raed van State) advises the Raedspensionaris on matters of state. Tasks my be delegated to the Cabinet, which consists of several departments and ministries. Several officials serve in the executive outside of the Council as well. most notably the Fiscael - a position comparable to the Attorney-General in the Anglo-Saxon tradition.

Legislative

The Staten-General of New Netherlands (Amerikaens: Staet-Generael der Nieuw-Nederlandt) is a bicameral legislature consisting of :

  • Eerst Kamer (First Chamber or the Upper House): The first chamber is composed of 40 seats, with each province represented by 5 members each. The provincial government is responsible for electing members to the upper house.
  • Tweede Kamer (Second Chamber or the Lower House): The second chamber is composed of 150 seats elected by proportional representation in a single nationwide constituency. The leader of the largest party in the Tweede Kamer is appointed as the raadspensionaris.

Judiciary

The judicial system of New Netherland is divided into three tiers, originally based on the early courts of colonial New Netherland in the early 17th century under the Dutch West India Company.

Court name Jurisdiction
Supreme Court Höchraed v'n Nieuw-Nederland New Netherland
Provincial Courts Provinciale Rechtbancs Respective provinces
Magistrate Courts Schepens Rechtbancs Respective municipalities

Administrative divisions

There are two main levels of administrative divisions in New Netherland, namely;

  • Provinces (Provincies)
  • Municipalities (Hîrlÿkheyds)
  • Boroughs (Stadtsdêls)

Provincial Governments

Provincial government in New Netherland is formed by the 8 provinces. Provinces are responsible for spatial planning, local taxes, health policy, certain cultural policy and recreation within limits set out in the national constitution; they additionally oversee the policy and finances of municipalities, and local utilities. Provincial governments consist of a 15 member provincial council elected every 3 years by popular vote with a provincial constituency. A Provincial Stadtholder is appointed by the Tweede Kamer (Lower House) and approved by the Provincial council every 4 years. The Provincial Stadtholder is the leader of the Provincial government and has the responsibilities of streamlining local governance and acting as a bridge between the national and provincial governments.

Name Cities Creation Map
Capital Largest
Hakaene HKE New Netherland Province Map.png
Ieries IEE
Irokesenland IKL
Lange Eylandt LEL
North Oudeland NOL
South Oudeland SOL
New Anglia NAG
Swaenendael SND
Aruba, Curaçao & Bonaire ACB
New Amsterdam NAF New Amsterdam

Diplomacy and Foreign Relations

New Netherland maintains foreign relations with most countries in the world barring some exceptions. It’s a founding member of the Internationale Nederlandse gemeenschap (Dutch-sphere organization) which consists of nearly 15 countries, its a founding member of ANAN, The organization for cooperation in the Caribbean, the organization of east American develop and it holds a leading role within the Dutch-speaking world competing often with the Netherlands itself for cultural dominance.

Military

Armed Forces of New Netherland
Nieuw-Nederlandse Krÿgsmaegte
Founded1794
HeadquartersEgmont, North Oudeland

The New Netherlands armed forces (Nieuw-Nederlandse Krÿgsmaegte ) are the military and paramilitary forces of NNL, under the Raad der defensie as supreme commander. They consist of the NNL Army (Landmag), NNL Navy (De Staatse Vloot, the NNL Air and Space Force (Lugmag), the national commando service (Kommando Dienst) which is the reserve, and the Military Police called the National Guard ( Nationale Garde), which also fulfils civil police duties in the rural areas of NNL. Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and one of if not the strongest of America’s. In total including all branches and reserves, the krÿgsmaegte has a total of 1.3 million under its umbrella, 390.000 of them are on active duty (excluding the National Guard). The Krijgmagte is one of the largest civilian employers within NNL either directly or indirectly as it oversees a fast military-industrial complex employing some 700.000 people in one way or another.

While the National Guard is an integral part of the NNL armed forces (Guardsmen are career soldiers), and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces, it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.

When acting as a general-purpose police force, the Nationale Garde encompasses the counter-terrorist units of the Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National guard (Parachute interventie groep), the National Guard Intervention Group (Interventie Groep), the Search Sections of the National Guard (Nationale Recherce), responsible for criminal inquiries, and the Mobile Brigades of the National Guarde (Mobiele eenheden) which have the task to maintain public order and intervene if local police forces cannot maintain order. A special unit of the national guard is attached to protecting valuable and high-ranking politicians and protecting the national assembly and other important buildings that house the Republic her institutions.

The krÿgsmaegte posses a wide variety of intelligence services the most notable of them being the CID or Centraale Inlichtingen Directoraat (Central intelligence directorate) which is responsible for foreign military intelligence and reports directly to the chief of the general staff. The other intelligence agency often simply called the Blauwe wacht or “Dienst van binnenlandse veiligheid” is responsible for intelligence in the interior and falls under the national guard. A notable aspect of the intelligence apparatus and the military as a whole is that it all reports to the chief of the general staff, who in turn reports to the Raad der Defensie, rather then it reporting to the elected head of government.

Nieuw Nederlandt is often considered one of the few nations in America that developed its nuclear capability independently of other nations. It maintains a sizeable nuclear arsenal while it never openly admits that it has it it’s considered an open secret. Its nuclear forces in turn fall under the Air force and the Navy depending on the delivery platform. NNL maintains one of the largest arsenals of biological agents and chemical weapons, with some saying it is the largest in America and of the northern hemisphere. This has however never been confirmed by any credible sources.

Nieuw Nederlandt has a major military industrial complex, with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world. Its industries have produced such equipment as the Specht fighter series, Roodkop multirole fighter, the Donck class aircraft carrier, the Exocet missile, and the Roosevelt tank among others.

NNL has noted that it has one of the more robust and domestically capable military-industrial complexes in the world. Developing everything from tanks to jets to missiles and space-based capabilities. It has been a world leader for example in jet technology ever since the 1960s being the first nation to put a so-called “stealth” aircraft into service.  NNL is a major arms seller, with most of its arsenal's designs available for the export market with the notable exception of nuclear-powered devices.

NNL has consistently developed its cybersecurity capabilities, which are regularly ranked as some of the most robust of any nation of the world.

Culture

Culture in New Netherland is primarily of Western, and more specifically, Dutch origin, but its influences include Northern European, Afro-Amerikaner, Native-Amerikaner, and Asian cultural aspects to varying degrees. It also has its own distinct social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect, music, arts, social habits, cuisine, and folklore. Nieuw-Nederlandt is often seen as the benchmark of Amerikaener culture due to its dominant position within the Amerikaener political, cultural and social sphere and its leading role within ANAN. It is one of the few nations where cultural traits are seen as more important than ethnic traits in regards to citizenship. It’s well known for its militarism, love of parties, love of drinking, and refusal to give up under any circumstances.

List of leaders

List of stadtholders

Name Reign Duration Notes
Marÿn van der Beeke 1796 1811 15 years
Isaac Kuyter 1811 1822 11 years
Hendrick I van Ackerhuys 1822 1836 14 years
Hendrick II van Ackerhuys 1836 1855 19 years
Lodewÿck van Ackerhuys 1855 1870 15 years
Johan Wilhelm (claimant) 1870 1 day
Herman de Carpentier 1870 1874 4 years
Jan-Maryn de Boetsselaer 1874 1876 2 years
Johan de Kleyn 1876 1880 4 years
Albertus May 1880 1884 4 years A direct-line descendant of the first colonial Director-General of New Netherland, Cornelius Jacobsen May.
Carel van Twiller 1884 1888 4 years
Quincey van Moock 1888 1900 12 years
Theodorus de Gelüs-Clérisseau 1900 1903 3 years

List of raedspensionarises

Name Term of office Duration Party Notes
Barteelmeus van Haerst 1903 1911 8 years Unity Party
Magnus Cornelius Bartelsz 1911 1919 8 years Progressives
Johannes Karsen 1919 1923 4 years
Maurits Thomas Hudson 1923 1927 4 years Supported Spain and colonial Florida during the Everglades War.
Christiaen Huysman 1927 1931 4 years Free Destiny Founder of the Free Destiny Party.
Jan Kaspar Knip 1931 1939 8 years Supporter of interventionism in North America. Spearheaded NNL's involvement in the 1934 Virginian Revolution and the liberation of New England.

See also