History of Europe

From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty

Baroque period (1664-1715)

Second Anglo-Dutch War

Anglo-Dutch War.png

With the restoration of Charles II to the throne after the defeat of the Commonwealth, a surge of optimism hit the English gentry - that could finally be able to end Dutch supremacy over global trade. Against the wishes of the Henriettian faction, which advocated a pro-Dutch foreign policy, England declared war on the Netherlands. However, things would not go well for the English - especially in America.

An English fleet led by Prince Rupert attacked the New Netherland colony, aiming to seize it from the Dutch. Despite initial English efforts, the popular government of New Netherland, led by Paulus van der Grist, successfully defeated the enemy fleet. In 1667, the Treaty of Breda affirmed Dutch ownership of the land and many other territorial changes involving New France, New England, and Virginia.

Rise of Queen Henrietta

The death of Charles II of England and the premature death of Prince James led to Henrietta being crowned Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1667.

Anglo-Hispanic cooperation

Treaty of Madrid (1669)

During the Anglo-Spanish War, various Spanish cities in the Caribbean and in the Americas were raided by English privateers, most notoriously Henry Morgan of Jamaica. Queen Henrietta of England signed a treaty "for the settlement of all disputes in America", motivated by mutual concerns over French expansion. This diplomacy was heavily supported by Genoese colonists in the Americas, who would go on to rule Panama City.

Franco-Dutch War

Formation of the Triple Alliance

During the War of Devolution, the countries of England, the Netherlands, and Sweden created the Triple Alliance to counter French influence in the Low Countries in 1668. They began cooperating with Spain soon after. England and Spain signed the Treaty of Madrid in 1669, officialising peace between the two countries. From then on, the French were eager to seek retribution against the Alliance - especially the Netherlands.

The Easter invasion

France attributed the Dutch victory in the Anglo-Dutch war to financial weakness on England's side, and thus underestimated Dutch military strength. In the April of 1672, the French marched from Charleroi and invaded the Dutch Republic via Münster and Cologne, allowing them to bypass the Spanish Netherlands completely. Although initially successful, the French suffered losses. After Spain had joined the war on the Dutch side in late 1674, peace was eventually negotiated.

Peace and aftermath

The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1676 reversed France's territorial gains in the Low Countries in 1668. This unceremonious defeat was humiliating for France, for Louis XIV, and the military engineer of the Easter invasion - the Marquis of Vaubun. It dramatically reduced France's military and political prestige, eventually leading a very gradual decline pf Bourbon power until their expulsion from Europe in 1795.

Anglo-Dutch Union

Queen Henrietta dies in 1692. Her son, William III, is elected Stadtholder of the Netherlands, ending the First Stadtholderless Period. Simultaneously, he is coronated as the King of England, officially starting the Anglo-Dutch Union. William III dies after two decades in power in 1712. His eldest son becomes Maurice II of Orange, while his younger son becomes King William IV of England, thus ending the Union.

Crisis of the Spanish Succession

The disabled Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II, was nearing death with no heir and no wife. Several dynasties in and out of Spain vyed for the French throne. King Louis XIV proposed his son, Philip of Anjou, as King of Spain in 1698 but was rejected due to the Bourbon dynasty's unfavorable reputation.

England and France signed the Treaty of Nîmes in 1699, agreeing that the throne of Spain would go to a Habsburg and that Spain's Italian possessions - namely Savoy, Piedmont, Sardinia, and Naples - would be transferred to French Bourbon rule. In 1699, the prospective Habsburg king of Spain, Prince Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria, had died. Despite this setback, the proposal was endorsed by Joseph I of Austria and Maurice II of the Netherlands in 1700. Upon Charles II’s death in 1701, Prince Charles Francis of Austria officially succeeded him as Charles III, King of Spain.

Crisis of the French Succession

The unfortunate death of Louis the Great Dauphine, King Louis XIV’s eldest son, had disrupted the French line of succession. Next in line was Prince Philip of Anjou, the rejected Bourbon heir to Spain. Upon the death of his father in 1714, the prince became King of France, ruling as Philip VII. His rule was marked by increased anti-British and anti-Austrian sentiment, two countries who he viewed as jeopardizing France's future prosperity. Under his rule, the colonial venture in North America was expanded and more settlers were sent to prevent French claimed territory from being absorbed into British and Dutch colonies.

Age of Enlightenment (1715-1815)

Great Silesian War

Great Silesian War
Europe 1757.jpg
Europe in 1757, two years after the war
Europe, America, India, Africa
Result Treaty of Vienna; victory of the Anglo-Austrian Entente
United Kingdom

In 1748, Prussia's Frederick II had confided to Philip VII of France about his plans to take Silesia from the Austrians. Philip VII pledged his support to Frederick II, eventually leading to full-blown war in 1750.

The war itself

After resurrecting an old Brandenburg claim to Silesia and forming an alliance with France and other smaller German states, Prussia invaded Austrian Silesia in 1750. Bavaria, Saxony, and Sweden pledged support to the Franco-Prussian Entente. Britain, on the other hand, had pledged support to its ally, Austria. Incursions into the Low Countries led to the Netherlands and Spain to join the war on the side of the Anglo-Austrian alliance.

Prince Maurice's War was the North American theatre of the Great Silesian War. Prince Maurice's War was one of the largest colonial wars in North America and led to the defeat of New France and several indigenous American states.

Treaty of Vienna (1755)

In America, the Treaty of Vienna granted the Dutch possession of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi Basin region, while the British were granted possession of the Caribbean islands of Basse-Terre, Grande-Terre, Les Saintes, Marie-Galante, and La Désirade.

In Europe, the Kingdom of Prussia was disestablished and partitioned. Eastern Frisia became part of the United Provinces. East Prussia was granted to Russia which was exchanged in return for the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia.

The Augustine era

The Midcentury (1815-1878)

Wars of Dutch Humiliation

The Wars of Dutch Humiliation is a term used to describe two nearly simultaneous wars that led to Dutch defeat in Asia and the Americas - the Canton War against the French & the British and the Second Dutch-Spanish War against the Spanish empire.

Canton War

Dutch merchants possessed a historic monopoly on the Europe-China trade since the establishment of colonial Tauland in the 17th century. France and Britain desired to break this monopoly and gain control over the Chinese trade. It eventually led to the Partition of China in 1857, with the Qing dynasty being relegated to the north and the newly established Kingdom of Canton south of the Yellow River.

Second Dutch-Spanish War

While the Netherlands was distracted in China, Spain invaded Dutch Tussenland and the Dutch Moluccas. The two powers negotiated a formal peace treaty in 1856. In the treaty, the Dutch ceded a large portion of southeastern Tussenland to New Spain and were forced to grant South Tussenland independence. In the East Indies, the Dutch had ceded the Moluccas to the Spanish.

Communard Revolutions

Second French Revolution

A new egalitarian ideology called communardism had rocked French society in the 1870s. Originally began by the bourgeoise and the middle class, increased hatred towards the Valentine dynasty led to the bloody assassination of King Louis XVII of Grimaldi in 1873.

Rise of Thévenet

A radical communard party, the Society of the Allies of the Republic (SAR; French: Société des Amis de la République) occupied the power vacuum. The SAR's leader, Étienne Thévenet, led the declaration of the Republic of France with the Statement of Senlis in 1874, espousing hardline communard ideals and rejecting established religion and class structures.

In order to consolidate France's borders, Thévenet collaborated with the pro-French and republican population of Belgique to overthrow the Wittelsbach monarchy. The Christmas Insurrection in 1874 was ultimately successful, with Belgique being incorporated into France.

British intervention of 1877

The British began to grow wary of the French republic's success. In 1876, the ruling SAR party blatantly attempted to influence politics in central Europe and the Italian states. In early 1877, the SAR was removed from power by the British-backed Communard Party of France (PCF; Parti Communard de France). The PCF established the Third French Republic and normalised relations with other European powers. During the coup, the British took over multiple overseas French colonial possessions, including several Caribbean islands and Karikal.

Communard occupation of Spain

Despite the insurgency being quelled in France, numerous members of the SAR escaped to Spain, where they were able to activelly collaborate with the Sociedad de Comuneros - the leading Spanish communard association. The communards successfully deposed King Ferdinand VII of Spain and established the Spanish Republic in Madrid. Ferdinand VII led a government-in-exile in the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

By 1881, the communard forces were defeated with British assistance and the Habsburg monarch Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne. During the communard insurgency, the colonies of Peru and Mexico declared independence.

Coimbra insurrection in Portugal

Wars of the Irises

Sessantine period (1878-1935)

Great War and aftermath (1935-1945)

Silent War (1945-1980)

See also