New France

From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty
New France
Nouvelle-France
New France Flag.png
Locator New France.pngLocation of New France
Established1793
CapitalVille de Québec
Largest CityMontreal
Government TypeConstitutional monarchy
LanguagesFrench (official)
Métif
CurrencyNew France livre (LNF)

New France (French: Nouvelle-France), also known as Quebec (French: Québecq, Amerikaens: Keppeck), is the only Francophone country in North America. It is bordered by Rupert's Land and Tussenland to west and New England and New Netherland to the south.

History

Early viceregal period (1534-1750)

Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered the land which would become New France in 1523. France decided to colonize the territory to secure and expand its influence in the Americas. These lands were full of unexploited and precious natural resources, which further incentivized French interest in the region. In 1534, the New France colonial establishment was established. French merchants soon realized that the St. Lawrence region was economically profitable. By the 1580s, multiple French-American trading companies had been set up, and ships were contracted to bring furs back to France.

In 1608, King Henry IV sponsored Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons, and Samuel de Champlain to found the cit yof Quebec. The founders allied themselves with the Algonquin and Montagnais peoples in the area. They also arranged to have young French men live with local indigenous people to learn their language and customs.

By 1650, New France already had several hundred French colonists scattered over multiple villages. As a result of the French settlers' growth, Louis XIV made New France a royal province in 1663. The crown stimulated emigration to New France by paying for transatlantic passages and offering incentives to those willing to move. The government of the colony was reformed along the lines of France's government, with the Governor leading the colony and subordinate to France. New France's population steadily increased.

English claims and concessions
England also laid claim to regions in New France's domain. The first substantial English presence in Acadie, a region of New France, goes back to 1656 when the English Sir William Crowne secured land rights from the French Governor of Acadie, Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour. From 1656 to 1667, he brought settlers from England and established two English communities called Williamstown and Stowe. They are now the present-day cities of Saint-Jeanne and Génolhac.  
The distinctive New England Panhandle, ceded by France to the United Kingdom in the Treaty of Breda (1667).
During the 2nd Anglo-Dutch war in 1664, the French fought alongside the Dutch against England. England invaded and occupied Acadie in 1666. However, after being defeated by the Franco-Dutch alliance in 1667, France demanded England to drop all of its claims on Acadie (which they called Nova Scotia) and Terre-Neuve in the Treaty of Breda (1667). In exchange, France agreed to cede a portion of land west of the St. Lawrence river to New England, a region now often referred to as the New England Panhandle.

William Crowne, founder of Williamstown and Stowe, was also forced to surrender his manoral rights back to New France. However, Crowne managed to convince Governor de la Tour to let him keep his charter after offering to pay the governor's debt of £2,000 to a French nobleman's widow. Through Crowne, more English colonists arrived in Saint-Jeanne and Génolhac after the war. In 1712, a new English settlement named Annasville was founded 30 miles northeast of Port-Royal (the contemporary Ville-de-Acadie) by Crowne's son. By 1750, these three towns became the epicenters of the English presence in Acadie.

Late viceregal period (1750-1793)

A map of New France at her peak in 1745. Missouri and Pays d'en Haut would be ceded to the Dutch after Prince Maurice's War (1750-1755). Map art by Skipr14
Prince Maurice's War

Prince Maurice's War was one of the largest colonial wars in North America, where the colonies of Britain, Spain, and the Dutch Republic were pitted against those of France and their native allies. It is the North American theatre of a larger conflict known as the Great Silesian War (1750-1755).

The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Vienna on 16 February 1755. The treaty granted the Dutch possession of the Great Lakes and the Mississipi Basin region.

English expulsion from Acadie

It was reported that many of the English settlers had supported British military activity and disrupted French supply lines in Acadie during Prince Maurice's War. In response, Governor Louis de Montmorency of Acadie ordered the identification of the English collaborators and their deportation in 1756. In 1757, De Montmorency took a radical stance when he ordered all the expulsion of English settlers in Génolhac, Ville-de-Acadie, and Saint-Jeanne despite their political affiliation or legal citizenship. The move faced opposition from the Royal Council and thousands of English settlers drowned or died of disease. The expulsion is memorialized in a statue made by Virginian sculptor B. Bortson, unveiled in 1968 in the "English quarter" of Saint-Jeanne.

A detailed map of the destinations of expelled Anglo-Acadians (1755-1765).

Philippine period (1793-1830)

During the French Revolution, Philip VIII of France fled to New France after France was overrun by the revolutionaries. Philip VIII continued to style himself as the King of France, despite the National Assembly in France declaring his brother, Henri, as the new King of the French. Thousands more of loyalist emigres fled to New France. New France became a haven for emigres during the course of the revolution. The other Western powers decided to back his brother Henri instead as the King of the French, sparking a bitter rivalry between France and New France ensued throughout the 19th century. New France was considered de facto independent by the 1830s.

La Monarchie Eclairée (1830-1903)

In the late 1870s, liberal ideas had started to take root in the intellectual circles of New France. There had been immense pressure on the king to enact liberal reforms. In 1882, the Bourbon dynasty issued the Treatise on Enlightened Rule (French: Ordre de la souveraineté rationnelle), declaring their intention to create a constitutional monarchy. A bicameral parliament and the post of Prime Minister was established soon after.

The new Constitution of 1883 declared that I.) the two official names of the nation will be New France and Kingdom of France in the Americas (French: Le Royaume de la France en Amérique) and that II.) New France is a distinct and sovereign state separate from European France.

Normalisation of relations with Paris

The new government of New France focused on establishing diplomatic ties with its neighbours and the nations of Europe. In 1890, they normalized relations with the communard administration of Paris in the Treaty of Amity (French: Traitement de courtoisie entre la République et le Royaume).

Les Décennies Agitées (1903-1939)

In the aftermath of New Netherland's republican revolution and Tussenland's independence, New France sought to rebuild friendly relations with the Amerikaener states. They established to trade agreements with New Netherland and the Francophone province of Meerenland, in Tussenland.

Nationalism and republican sentiment

The early 20th century also saw the rise of New French nationalism, which promoted a distinct New French culture and identity. An infamous irredentist faction called the Greater New France Party even advocated for the invasion and reannexation of Meerenland.

A struggle between between communards, republicans, and monarchists ensued in the nation. Monarchists argued that the monarchy of New France and its unique history was what set them apart from other American nations, idolizing the Bourbon dynasty as the vanguard of stability and identity. The republicans and communards thought of it as an outdated institution. There had been multiple attempts to abolish the monarchy in parliament through voting, all of which failed.

Demographics

Immigrants

In the early 20th century, thousands of Saint-Dominguese emigrated to New France due to poor economic conditions, mainly settling in Montreal and Les Mureaux. They are overwhelmingly Roman Catholic and are characterised by their mixed race heritage, like the Métis.

List of leaders

Quebecois Bourbon monarchs

  • Louis XV (1795-1801)
  • Henri V (1801-1838)
  • Henri VI (1838-1869)
  • Henri VII (1869-1871)
  • Francis III (1871-1908)
  • Catherine I (1908-1927)
  • Henri VIII (1927-1949)
  • John III (1949-1958)

See also