Kingdom of Aotearoa
Te Akiritanga o'Aotearoa
and largest city
|Official languages||Maori |
|Ethnic groups||Maori |
|Religion||Catholic Church |
|Legislature||Parliament of Aotearoa|
• Upper house
• Lower house
|House of Delegates|
Aotearoa, officially the Kingdom of Aotearoa (Maori: Te Arikitanga o'Aotearoa, French: Royaume d'Âotearoa) is an island nation located in Polynesia. Originally settled by Maori in the 14th century, the Confederation was established in 1842, shortly followed by the instatement of the House of Hine in 1844.
Pre-classical period (1300-1460)
The Maori first settled Aotearoa in the early 14th century with the Great Fleet. Prior to this, numerous Maori explorers - such as the revered Koupe - had surveyed the island and initiated Maori civilisation. Several chiefdoms were created based on tribal confederations (ioui) and clans (hapou), bound by genealogy (ouakapapa). Tribes grouped themselves together based on phratries - which one of fourteen Great Fleet canoes they originated from. The kinfolk (ouanaou) was the smallest political unit, governed by councils of elders (kaoumatua) who organised congregations at town squares (marae).
Classical period (1460-1650)
Several natural disasters, including the extinction of the Moa and destruction of several towns, led to the Classical period. By 1500, the Maori had established settlements in every corner of Aotearoa, dramatically increasing deforestation and the establishment of farms and classical-style fort towns (paa). Maori arts, especially carving and cuisine, became distinct from other Polynesians.
It is speculated that Portuguese adventurer Cristovao de Mendoca visited Aotearoa in the 16th century, though this is not a confirmed theory and is rejected by many scholars. Rahiri le Roi, patriarch and ancestor of the current House of Hine, is said to have lived during this time.
In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman landed on the territory of the Ngati Toumatakokiri. The Toumatakokiri, already having been informed of European violence in other Polynesian islands, decided to pre-emptively attack Tasman's fleet, driving the Dutch away from Aotearoa and New Zelande.
Early modern period (1650-1800)
Several new crops and technologies were introduced to Aotearoa during the early modern period. Animals like pigs and plants like American potatoes were introduced during the 18th century, supplanting the traditional taro. These developments eliminated nomadism altogether and allowed for the growth of towns.
Contact with Europeans and a few Asians continued throughout the late 18th century, dramatically increasing in the 1760s. In the next few decades, Aotearoa began exporting goods to China, the Dutch East Indies, and other states. This was contemporary with the rise in Makassarese contacts with the indigenous peoples of what would become New Batavia.
Nga Pouhi |
Maroutouahou (from 1843)
|Casualties and losses|
|30,000 deaths in total|
The introduction of Western firearms around 1800 altered Aotearoa's society, with numerous tribes adopting muskets into their armies. Tribes began conducting raids and campaigns against each other. In the 1820s, French settlers and Roman Catholic missionaries from Australie began establishing themselves in the island's core urban centres. By the 1830s, France and Britain began fervently competing for influence over the island of Aotearoa.
The Ngati Hine and Nga Pouhi of Te Tai Tokerau had been rapidly expanding since 1770. By 1835 they had subdued numerous other tribes, including Te Ouaihua and Te Kaouerau. They allied with Te Atiaua and other individual groups within Aotearoa.
In 1842, the British-backed Confederation of United Tribes government was established in Aotearoa. It was primarily led by the Tainouie and their numerous allies. The Confederation, pledging allegiance to King Ernest I of the United Kingdom, vehemently opposed the French settler colonies of New Zelande and Australie and promoted Presbyterianism and Anglicanism.
In the spring of 1843, the Maroutouahou League abruptly betrayed the wider Tainouie ouaka and allied with the Nga Pouhi due to stark economic and religious disagreements with the British and other Tainouie clans. Over the next several months, several hapou across the island revolted in favour of the Nga Pouhi-led pro-French faction. Over twenty hapou of the Ngati Manaoua, Ngati Porou, Ngati Tama, and others gradually came to reject the status quo as well.
On the eighth of June 1844, the Nga Pouhi-led faction orchestrated a coup d'etat at government offices in Opotiki, Tamaki, and Ahouriri. The following violence subsequently destroyed the cities of Opotiki and Ahouriri, with the Nga Pouhi eventually reconquering the city of Tamaki by the twenty-first of June. On the third of July, it was concluded that chief Hohepa Houiroua Hoiho Hine of Ngararatounoua marae would be proclaimed King of Aotearoa (Maori: Te Arikinouie o'Aotearoa).
Government and Politics
The head of state and monarch is known as Te Arikinouie (lit. the Great Lord). While possessing a degree of power over national administration, their centre of power is the town of Kamo and its environs - the homeland of the ruling House of Hine. Several hereditary lords form the Privy Council (Kaounihera Aouhina o'Ariki).
The monarch's power is regulated by the Chancellor (Maori: Te Toumouaki Tohunga), who acts as the head of government. The Chancellor is elected for three-year terms and heads the Cabinet (Rounanga Kaouanatanga).
The Parliament of Aotearoa (Maori: Ouare Rounanga Hangatoure Aotearoa) consists of two chambers; the Senate (Kaounihera Ariki) and an elected assembly of representatives called the House of Delegates (Ouare Mangai).
Aotearoa is divided into ten cantons used for administration and for voting constituencies used to elect members of the House of Delegates. They differ from rohe, which are traditional tribal borders used to appoint members of the Senate and to arrange community-based volunteer and paramilitary organisations.
|Te Tai Tokerau||TTT||Ouarangai|
|Te Tai Raouhiti||TTR||Te Ouairoa||Tanenouie|
|Te Oupoko||TOP||Te Tai Tara|
Four principal ethnicities comprise Aotearoa society; the Maori, the Meti (mixed race, from French métis), the Pakeha (Europeans), and the Marai (Asians, from kehou-rite lit. appears reddish-brown). The 1944 census details the ethnic makeup of the island:
The majority and national language of Aotearoa is Maori, a Polynesian language also spoken in numerous surrounding nations. French is often used as a second language for administration, diplomacy, and business. It is also the primary tongue of the Pakeha minority. Spoken in the hundreds, other languages include Mandarin, Japanese, and Fijian.
Most people of Aotearoa adhere to the non-Papist Catholic Church, the syncretic Aria Ora religious movement, or are secular and vaguely identify with Maori and Catholic traditions. Around 4% of the island is Protestant, while a few thousand profess to be Buddhists and Muslims.
List of leaders
House of Hine
The House of Hine (Maori: Ouare Ariki Ngati Hine) has been the royal family of Aotearoa since 1844, originating from the Ngati Hine clan of Tai Te Tokerau ouaka. They gained prominence in the early 19th century with the rise of the belligerent Nga Pouhi tribe.
- Hohepa Houiroua (1844-1861)
- Hua Ouakakau (1861-1875)
- Kaouiti I (1875-1878)
- Te Mahita (1878-1899)
- Te Kautakoa (1899-1914)
- Kaouiti II (1914-1930)
- Renata Kaouiti (1930-1976)