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Chinese Republic

Flag of China
Largest cityCanton
Official languagesStandard Chinese
Recognised regional languagesCantonese
GovernmentConstitutional republic
LegislatureNational Parliament
• Annexation of Qing

China, officially the Chinese Republic (華民國, hwamingwo, /hwa.min.kwɔ/), is a country in East Asia, bordering over eight sovereign states including Corea, Russia, and Tibet. It is the most populous country on earth and one of the most economically productive states. Ruled by the Qing and Ye for most of the modern era, the modern republic was established in 1931, unifying the country in 1936.


On 7 May 1931, the National Reformation Party (華改會, hwagaihwei) mobilized the armed forces and several affiliated paramilitaries across the country, capturing the vast majority of key military and government institutions of the Kingdom of Canton in just over a month. By 10 June, the Chinese Republic was declared, with notable assemblyman and former compradore Teng Acoy 鄧阿采 being declared President of the Republic in the following weeks. This event was known as the Sinwei coup.

Government and Politics

Chinese National Government
Unitary parliamentary republic
ConstitutionArticles of Unification
Legislative branch
LegislatureNational Parliament
Assembly members299
Executive branch
Head of statePresident
Main bodyGeneral Secretariat
Judicial branch
Court of appealCensorial Senate

China is a unitary parliamentary republic consisting of 18 provinces 䁞 and 7 urban prefectures 府, characterized as a non-liberal representative system. The country's constitution is the code known as the Articles of Unification (合一憲法, he i sienfa), which were officially enacted by the 8 June 1931 Law, giving the National Parliament power over the armed forces and several senior ministries.

Legislature and judiciary

The National Parliament is the tricameral legislature of the Chinese Republic. It consists of three bodies;

  • the upper house, the Senior Chamber (磋院, cwoyen), consists of 36 members elected by aldermen 董事 from urban prefectures every seven years.
  • the lower house, the General Chamber (共院, gongyen), is a 250-representative body elected by provincial parliaments every seven years.
  • and the Censorial Senate (監察院, gamcayen; shortened to 'the Censorate'), which acts the auditory branch of the Parliament. Its 12 members are called senators. They are nominated every sixteen months by senior regional government officials, approved by at least a plurality vote in the Senior Chamber, and reviewed and confirmed by the General Secretariat.

Additionally, the General Secretariat appoints a Liaison Officer 議長, an official who oversees and reports on relations between the three bodies of the National Parliament, as well as administering formal communications between the Parliament and the Secretariat. Thus, the total number of members of the Parliament comes to 299.

The Censorial Senate, in addition to being an auditory body, functions as the final court of appeal (i.e the supreme court) of the Republic. It is said to have been modeled on the British House of Lords in order to contain juridical power within the framework of Parliament.


The President of the Republic 相國 is the head of the executive branch and originates from the imperial position of Chancellor. They are elected by a college of electors, whose members are nominated and approved by provincial parliaments. The Presidency has no set term limit; the officeholder can be removed via a motion of the General Chamber combined with the assent of the Censorial Senate. Another, rarer route is when the Secretariat files a complaint with the Senate, who would then consult with senior legislative leaders in order to impeach the President.

The General Secretariat 國內閣 functions as the executive college of the state, consisting of nine Secretaries heading various departments. A Chief General Secretary 大幹事 is appointed by the President in order to act as the head of the Secretariat and the head of government. In practice, the pool of nominated candidates is limited as they must be approved by the college of nine Secretaries and rubber-stamped by Parliament. Upon confirmation, the Chief General Secretary cannot be dismissed by the President and remains in their position until resignation, removal, or the end of the particular administration. The balance of power of the two executives may vary with each administration.

Additionally, the President chairs the Southern Study (南書房, namśufang), an advisory body first established by the Kanggwo Emperor in 1684. Its members are all appointed by the President without significant parliamentary or secretarial interference, giving confidential advise to the head of state on matters of public policy, politics, and administration.


China is the most populous country in the world, with most its population being concentrated in coastal provinces and the Central Plains. The vast majority of the population are of Hwa Chinese ethnicity. Standard Chinese, the official language and lingua franca, is understood to a sufficient degree by the bulk of the population.


The Hwa, also commonly referred to as the Han 漢 or the Tang 唐, are the predominant ethnic group of China, comprising an estimated 95% of the Chinese population. They are considered the descendants of the Hwasia tribes 華夏 of the Yellow River Valley, contrasted with the 'barbaric' peoples surrounding them. Much of the Republic's ideology is built upon Hwa ethnocentrism and remains influential upon its citizens as well as the Hwa diaspora in the Americas, southeastern Asia, and other parts of the world.

Besides the Hwa, other notable ethnic communities are mostly concentrated in the southwest provinces, the coastal regions, and in metropolitan areas. These include the Law peoples 僚, the Bizica 土家, the Miaw 苗族, the Ji peoples 夷, and the Mingia 民家 of the southwest, the seafaring Tanka 南海人 of the Chinese coast, as well as numerous non-indigenous groups, the largest of which are Taulanders.

See also