The Mesopotamian League is a regional organization formed in 1966, consisting of five Mesopotamian emirates: Deir Azzor, Baghdad, Kirkuk, Mosul, and Basrah. It was established as a means for these states to collectively address common issues, notably in relation to oil policies and regional security.
The Mesopotamian emirates, having gained independence from the Ottoman Empire after the Great War (1936-1939), found themselves between the rising power of the United Gulf States (UGS) and the historical influence of Britain. Desiring to pursue independent oil policies without succumbing to external pressures, these states recognized the necessity for a regional union that would allow them to negotiate from a position of collective strength.
The idea of the Mesopotamian League was born out of a diplomatic summit held in Baghdad in late 1965, as the leaders of the five emirates convened to discuss shared concerns over regional security. The summit culminated in the signing of the Baghdad Treaty on August 2, 1966, officially creating the Mesopotamian League. The treaty outlined the league's principles of cooperation, non-aggression, and collective security, and the league's headquarters was established in Baghdad.
The League operates based on collective decision-making with each member state having an equal vote. This ensures that decisions made under the League's auspices are in the mutual interest of all members. The League's primary focus areas include oil policy, security arrangements, and economic policies.