From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty

BeThe decolonization wave during the 20th century was marked by the gradual relinquishment of colonial control by major European powers, including Spain, France, Great Britain, Portugal, and the Netherlands. This process was driven by the rise of national republicanism, geopolitical pressures, and internal strife within the colonial territories.

African decolonization during the Silent War. Map art by JVFreitas

Spain led the decolonization process by releasing its remaining East Indies holdings after the country's transition to a republic in 1929. France was forced to decolonize some of their colonies after the Great War (1935-1939). Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, Great Britain, fearing dissatisfaction among its colonies and the spread of national republicanism, granted independence to its territories while maintaining economic and diplomatic influence through trade deals and membership in the Organization of Democratic Nations (ODN). Portugal lost control of Portuguese Guinea, Iorubaland, and Borgu due to civil unrest and political upheaval but managed to retain Angola, Mozambique, and Namibia. The Netherlands faced challenges in its colonial territories as well, with the Cape Republic gaining independence in 1855.



Date Colonizer New entity Description
1855 The Netherlands Cape Republic Declared & won independence from the Dutch.
1933 Spain Morocco Morocco gained independence after renegotiating its protectorate status with Spain in 1933.
1938 France Kirignaga-Loloue Declared in 1938 by the Parti Communard de Kirignaga. Merger of the French colonies of Kirignaga and Loloue in East Africa.
1939 France Abyssinia France forced to recognize the independence of its former east African colonies in the aftermath of the Great War.
1942 Britain and


Malagasy National Republic Established in 1942, the Malagasy Nat. Rep. would fight against the British and Portuguese, and their Sackalava and St. Lucian allies until they gain full control of the island in 1949.
1943 Britain Umongo Also known as the Mongo National Republic. Formerly the British Mongoland Protectorate.
1945 Britain Uruwa Also known as the Luba National Republic. Formerly the British Lubaland Protectorate.
1948 Sweden Guinean Union Formerly Swedish Guinea. Gained independence as a federation, at the behest of the Swedish Republican government, following the abolition of the Swedish monarchy.
1949 Britain Natalia Formerly the Natal Colony. Natalia was given the mandate of the Cislikwa protectorates.
1953 Genoa Genoese Guinea joins Guinean Union
1953 Britain Congo Federation A federation consolidating the former colony of British Congo, and the Baboaland and Legaland protectorates. The new state would soon fall under a British-backed dictatorship.
1953 Britain Gambia Gained independence as a republic.
1956 Spain Spanish Guinea joins Iorubaland
1957 Britain Algeria Gained dominionship as separate entities.
1958 Britain Equatoria British dominion.
1958 Britain Sierra Leone
1959 Britain Dominion of Mandeland The Colony of Mandeland becomes a self-governing dominion.
1960 Britain East Africa Formerly British East Africa.
1961 Portugal Kongo
1961 Britain Republic of Gimbala
1961 Britain Sultanate of Dar Runga
1961 Portugal Borgu Formerly Portuguese Guinea. The colony was split into Borgu and Iorubaland.
1962 Britain Salvatia The Colony of Salvatia becomes a self-governing dominion under the influence of the Anglican Salvatian elite.
1962 Britain Soudan (then known as Nubia) Gained independence as a liberal republic, but soon fell under a Russian-backed dictatorship.
1964 Britain United States of Manden The Dominion gains full sovereignty as a republic.
1964 East Africa Unyamwezi Established at the end of the Nyamwezi revolts (1957-1964) that ended in their independence as the Nyamwezi National Republic (or Unyamwezi).
Abanyiginia Gained independence as a National Republic after the Abanyiginia National Republican revolts.
1964 Portugal Urunda The inland Portuguese Zambezian protectorates gain independence through the Zambezian accords, signed in 1961.
1965 East Africa Rukwa Founded by Rukwan national republicans. Recognized independent after East Africa could no longer keep control of Rukwa.
1976 The Netherlands Accany Became a dominion in 1967. Gained absolute independence in 1976 as the Republic of Accany.
1976 Portugal Mozambique Mozambique was recognized as independent after the 1976 Act of Free Will. After two years, the nationalists took power and established a dictatorship, expelling Portuguese settlers from the country.
Angola Became independent after the 1976 Act of Free Will.
Namibia Became independent after the 1976 Act of Free Will.


Date Colonizer New entity Description
1795 TheNetherlands Netherlands Declared independence in response to Prince William V's orders to hand over sovereignty to Great Britain during the French occupation of the Netherlands
1793 France Kingdom of France in the Americas (New France) Established as the Bourbon Kingdom of France in exile. Recognized the republic of France in 1883.
1839 Spanish Empire Paraguay Established as an independent republic in 1839, recognized as independent by Spain in 1846.
1842 Spanish Empire Colombia Established as an independent republic after the Colombian revolution.
1845 Portugal Bahia Republic Declared independence in 1836 but recognized by Portugal in 1845.
1846 Portugal Riograndense Republic Recognized by treaty in 1846.
1852 Britain Virginia Declared independence from Great Britain during the 2nd Anglo-Virginian war.
1855 The Netherlands South Tussenland Established during the South Tussenland Revolution amid the 2nd Dutch-Spanish war after a successful slave revolt.
1861 The Netherlands Dominion of Tussenland Established as a self governing dominion of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1861 after the Tussenland upheavals. In 1905 with the writing of a new constitution, declared full independence and cut ties with the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
1861 France Saint-Domingue Declared independence in 1861, recognized by France in 1862.
1881 Spanish Empire Mexico Former Viceroy of New Spain, Jorge González de Güemes y Horcasitas declared the Empire of Mexico following a popular coup.
1914 Britain New England Established as a self-governing commonwealth by the Home Rule in America Act. Severed ties with the crown and Great Britain in 1937.
1914 Britain Carolina Established as a self-governing commonwealth by the Home Rule in America Act.
1934 Spain Puerto Rico Gained independence through a referendum, following the Spanish Republican Revolution.
1948 Britain Guiana Established as a self-governing dominion.
1949 Britain Bahamas, Turks, and Caicos Islands (BTC)
1952 Genoa Mahe joins Carnatic
1956 Britain West Indies Union Martinique and other Francophone islands would later secede and form the Antilles Federation in 1963.


Date Colonizer New entity Description
1935 Spain Viet-Nam Gained independence through referendums in 1935, following the Spanish Republican revolution.
1938 Britain Jambudweep The Republic of Jambudweep was declared in 1939 in the midst of the Great War. Their war for independence was fought from 1938 until Britain recognized their independence in 1944.
1938 Britain Erawati Formerly the Konbaung Protectorate (Burma). Declared independence during the Great War with Siamese and nominal Russian support.
1939 Britain Tibet Declared independence in 1939 in the wake of the weakening British presence in India.
1939 France Kampuchea France forced to recognize the independence of its former Asian colonies in the aftermath of the Great War.
1940 Britain Balochistan A Balochi khanate led by the Khan of Kalat. Independence was recognized by Britain on 4 March 1940.
1944 Britain Carnatic


Date Colonizer New entity Description
1925 Britain Dominion of Ireland Established as a self-governing dominion under the British crown.
1945 Britain Iceland


Date Colonizer New entity Description
1936 France Australie Declared independence during the Great War. Officially recognized by France in the Congress of Amsterdam (1939).
1948 Britain Georgia Established as a self-governing dominion.
1959 Genoa Niue Declared independence in 1966 after the economic and political crisis in Genoa (1950s).
Tonga Declared independence in 1966 after the economic and political crisis in Genoa (1950s).