KIngdom of Kongo
Uene ua Kongo
|Largest city||Santa Fe dos Pombeiros|
|Regional languages||Kisolongo |
Government and Politics
Most Kongolese speak Kikongo, a continuum of closely related dialects. Within the Kingdom, most speak southern and eastern varieties of Kikongo, principally including the main dialects of Kisikongo, Kisolongo, Kizombo, and Kiṭandu.
The official language of the Kongo is Kisikongo (colloquially known as Sansala), a Kikongo dialect spoken in Mpemba province. Kisikongo and its ancestor have functioned as the court language of the Kingdom since at least the 15th century.
The present Mputu orthography system for Kikongo was created in the 1920s, inspired by a mass movement in African nations (particularly Manden) to reform their Latin orthographies. It was recognized by the Kingdom of Kongo in 1939 and became official in 1957.
|ᵐp||mp||ⁿt||ṭ||ᵑk||nq, nk, nc|
|ᵐb||mb||ⁿd||ḍ||k||q, k, c|
- In order to clarify pronunciation, /buːi/ is often transcribed as bu'i with an apostrophe, while /bwi/ is transcribed as bui, without one.
- /w/ at the start of a word followed by a vowel is transcribed as o, as in Oembo (/wembo/).
- In the Kisolongo and Kizombo dialects, the sound /v/ is often pronounced /β/ and may be written as bh.
- In eastern Kikongo dialects, v is often pronounced as /ɣ/.
- In Portuguese and Spanish sources, k may be spelled qu, reflecting old Castilian orthography.
|Vocabularium Congense (1652)||Mputu||Translation|
|lúfunzulú lua iúma ia úqúissi||lufunzulu lua yuma ya ukisi||'tarnishing of the thing of sacredness'|