Russia (Cyrillic: Россия), officially the Russian National Republic, is a transcontinental county spanning from Eastern Europe to Northern Asia. It is one of the largest countries in the world by area and has one of the largest populations. It borders several countries including Mongolia, Turkestan, Persia, & Poland.
In the early 17th century, the Romanov dynasty took control of the Russian state, with Michael I being crowned Tsar. Russia began expanding east at an unprecedented rate. During the Silesian War, Russia indirectly cooperated with the Anglo-Austrian coalition against Prussia, being awarded the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia in the treaty of 1755.
In the late 18th century, Russia began expanding further into the Pacific, forming the Kurile Island Company in 1788 and establishing dominance of what would become Alyeska. In 1832, the Russo-Dutch Treaty established the border between Russian and Dutch colonies in North America. During the Augustine Wars of the 1810s, Russia expanded into Circassia and began a new wave of invasions against Persia.
Russia participated in the 1832-1834 partition of Poland, gaining Baltic territories and subsequently increasing their ability to exert influence in Europe. After many failed attempts to further exert their influence eastwards, the Pacific Company was established in 1861 and maintained a steady hold on Russian America for decades to come. Russia also came to rival the British empire in Asia, resulting in the eventual formation of buffer states like Mongolia and Serindia.
In the 1860s, the fragile Tsar Alexander III and his Romanov dynasty was steadily overshadowed by his Dutch nephew, Alexander Fyodorovich, better known by his birth name Henry-William. The death of Alexander III in 1867 provoked a crisis of succession, leading to Henry-Williams triumphing over the ill and unpopular heir presumptive, Prince Ivan. Co-ruling with his Romanov wife Anna Petrovna, they founded the House of Orange-Romanov, which would come to rule the empire for six decades. They became known as the Orthodox Monarchs of Russia and would revitalize Russia through a series of reforms and wars. The Trans-Siberian Railway was soon constructed in order to rapidly advance the industrialization and militarization of the Siberian provinces. In 1868, the Russian empire annexed Ainu Mosir, an anti-Japanese revolutionary client state which Russia backed in the 1830s.
The new regime focused on expansion south and east rather than expansion west. The Russo-Ottoman War of 1884 pushed the Ottoman Empire out of Russia's sphere of influence, confining their European territories to those of modern Rumelia and expelling them from the Khanate of Crimea. The viceroyalties of Transpruthenia and Crimea were created soon after, finalizing Russia's penetration south towards the Ottomans. Russia's relationship with Austria deteriorated after the war due to false promises of territories, which would eventually manifest in violence in the 20th century.
In the 1920s, the European Economic Crisis triggered an economic depression, foreshadowed by decades of failing policies and cultural upheaval. Several nationalist and republican political factions which formed prior to the Crisis became immensely popular with the Russian public; the main organ of this revolution was the Republican Congress. Orkhonist rebels declared independence from Russia in 1924. In 1925, the Orange-Romanov monarchy was toppled, making way for internal divides within the revolutionaries. The liberal Republican Parliament and the Vosstanist National Congress rose to oppose each other, leading to a two-year civil war. By 1928, the Vosstanists defeated the Tricolour Army of the Parliament, firmly establishing national republican control over Russia and making history as the first successful national republic. The Vosstanist government rapidly initiated a series of administrative reforms, abolishing the old imperials state and creating a novel republican system of government. Anastaze 'Ozero' Murmsky, a firebrand revolutionary, and first Chairman of the Republic, oversaw many of these projects and is subsequently recognized as the father of modern Russia.
In 1932, Russia, along with Japan and China, declared war against the burgeoning empire of Corea. Ending in 1935, the war resulted in the annexation of Poeja and an assertion of Russian influence in northeast Asia. The same year, Russia entered the Great War in the spring of 1935 when the Ottoman Empire declared war against them. Russia joined the United Kingdom, Portugal, and others in forming the Cordial League. In 1936, Tripartite League forces laid siege to the city of Kiev for months. Chairman Ozero was forced to sign the Treaty of Akmolinsk in 1937, granting independence to the new Orkhonist state of Turkestan. Also in 1937, the Russo-Ottoman Compromise created the Rumelian National Republic and made Constantinople a Russo-Rumelian condominium. Russia's claims were formally acknowledged in the Congress of Amsterdam.
Government and Politics
|Federal national republic|
|Main body||Committee of National Affairs|
The National Government of Russia (Russian: Национальное правительство России) is the central government of Russia, headquarted in the capital city of Moscow.
The Chairman is the supreme head of government of Russia and the head of the National Republican Party, from which the Chairman derives their legitimacy and political support from.
The main executive organ of the state is the Committee of National Affairs (CNA), a body consisting of ten members appointed by the Party and approved by the Chairman. The CNA is responsible for creating national laws and enact decrees.
Committee of National Affairs (CNA)
The CNA is composed of 10 members appointed by the party and approved by the chairman. Members of the CNA write the laws and enact decrees along with the chairman.
Judiciary and legislature
The National Congress is a body of representatives from the governorates and autonomous national republics that meet infrequently. The representatives voice out concerns before the CNA, as well as other subnational affairs. They only serve an advisory role and does not directly influence the national government. They do not have a regular period of convention, and is only convened at the behest of the CNA and the chairman.
In the 1920s, the new National Republican government led a sweeping administrative reorganization campaign. Most viceroyalties, and other similar autonomies of the Russian Empire were transformed into autonomous national republics (ANR), internal nation-states dependent on the central administration.
A Governorate is the first-level subnational administrative divisions of Russia. Governorates are led by Governor-Generals, which are appointed by the Committee of National Affairs (CNA). The Governor-Generals are the representatives to the National Congress. A governorate is further divided into Uezds.
Autonomous National Republics
ANRs were semi-autonomous federal subjects of the RNR modeled after the Russian National Republic and meant to act as 'national homelands' for many of Russia's ethnic minorities. ANRs were not sovereign and independent nations, and therefore had no international representation and recognition, and were instead a constituent part of the Russian National Republic. Examples of ANRs were The Circassian and Transcaucasian National Republics.
The chief executive of Autonomous National Republics were the Chairman, a position which functioned similarly to the national government, and who is supported in their duties by a Committee of Internal Affairs (CIA). The CIA is the equivalent of the Committee of National Affairs for the ANRs. They can pass local laws, but have to be approved by the CNA. Its members are also selected by the local national republican party, but has to be approved by the CNA.
Sister republics were independent and sovereign states politically & economically tied to the Russian National Republic. They have their own government modeled after the Russian National Republic. However, unlike ANRs, they were not politically bound to the Russian National Republic. Most of the SRs created maintained close economic, military, and diplomatic ties with the Russian Nationalist Government. Examples of SRs include the Ainu National Republic.
Outside of the former Russian Empire's territories, the definition of a "Sister Republic" was loosely defined. Some states that describe themselves as Nationalist-Republican consider themselves as sister republics of Russia, while others refrained the use of the term as it implies Russian suzerainty
List of leaders
List of monarchs
|Alexis I||1645||1676||Romanov||Son of Mikhail I and Eudoxia Streshneva|
|Fyodor III||1676||1682||Romanov||Son of Alexis and Maria Miloslavskaya|
|Ivan V||1682||1696||Romanov||Son of Alexis and Maria Miloslavskaya. Younger brother of Feodor III and Sophia. Elder half-brother of Peter I, who he was Co-Monarch with until his death|
|Peter I||1682||1721||Romanov||Son of Alexis and Natalya Naryshkina. Co-Monarch with his brother Ivan V until his death in 1696. First Russian monarch to use the title of "Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias"|
|Alexis II||1721||1737||Romanov||Son of Peter I and Eudoxia Lopukhina|
|Peter II||1737||1741||Romanov||Son of Alexis II and his first wife Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel|
|Alexander I||1741||1782||Romanov||Son of Alexis II and his second wife Sophia Fyodorovna (born Maria Anna of Austria). Younger half-brother of Peter II|
|Alexander II||1782||1804||Romanov||Son of Alexander I and Elizabeth Alexeievna (Louise of Württemberg)|
|Anna I||1804||1808||Romanov||Daughter of Alexander II and his first wife Maria Fyodorovna (Eleanor of Sweden). Father chanced succession laws to male preference primogeniture so that women could inherit the throne with their spouses serving as Tsar Jure uxoris|
|Sophia I||1809||1844||Romanov||Daughter of Alexander II and his second wife Yekaterina Petronva (Frederike Auguste of Saxony). Younger half-sister of Anna I. Co-Monarch with her husband Vasily V|
|Vasily V||1809||1840||Romanov||Son of Grand Duke Cyril Mikhailovich, a grandson of Alexis II, and Militza Nikolaevna (Pauline of Baden). Co-Monarch with wife Sophia I|
|Alexander III||1844||1867||Romanov||Son of Vasily V and Sophia II|
|Ivan VI||1867||1867||Romanov||Son of Alexander III and Natalia Alexandrovna (Dagmar of Denmark). Willingly abdicated after ruling for two months due to him being impotent and in failing health favor of his cousins Anna II and Alexander IV|
|Anna II||1867||1897||Romanov||Daughter of Grand Duke Peter Vasilievich. Co-Monarch with husband Alexander IV until her death in 1897|
|Alexander IV||1867||1903||Orange-Nassau||Son of Grand Duchess Solomonia Vasilievna and Prince Henry-Maurice of the Netherlands. Originally known as Prince Henry-William of the Netherlands but was baptized as Alexander Fyodorovich. Co-Monarch with wife Anna II|
|Peter III||1903||1925||Orange-Romanov||Son of Alexander IV and Anna II. Deposed in the Russian Civil War and fled for Great Britain|
|Peter III||1925||1939||Orange-Romanov||Continued to claim the throne of Russia after his deposition until his death in 1939|
|Mikhail II||1939||1952||Son of Peter III and Victoria Feodorovna (Victoria Melita of Saxony), unmarried, no issue|
|Alexander V||1952||1953||Son of Peter III and Victoria Feodorovna (Victoria Melita of Saxony), younger brother of Mikhail II|
|Alexis III||1953||1977||Son of Alexander V and Maria Pavlovna (Josephine of Illyria)|
Chairmen of the National Republic
|Name||Term of office||Duration||Notes|
|Anastaze 'Ozero' Murmsky||1926||1943||17 years|
|Mikhail Orlov||1943||1947||4 years||Interim leader|
|Semyon Sigizmundovich Kiselev||1947||1958||11 years|
|Ilya Semyonovich Kiselev||1958|