Organization of The Southern Cross
Organization of The Southern Cross
The Organization of The Southern Cross (Spanish: Organización del Crucero del Sur; Portuguese: Organização do Cruzeiro do Sul) is an economic organization with the goal of developing integration among the countries of South America.
The name is derived from the Southern Cross constellation. The constellation was chosen as the symbol of the organization due to its visibility across the totality of the southern hemisphere and, therefore, acts as a common symbol of union for all nations of the South American continent.
The south american context at the peak of the Silent War:
The mid-20th century was marked by the pinnacle of the Silent War, which divided the world into three political-economic blocks. In this context, South America became one of the battlegrounds for influence between the superpowers of the time, which used their capabilities to attempt to obtain hegemony over the area. During this timeframe, the continent experienced a generalized lack of stability due to coups, revolutions, and civil wars.
The Quito Coalition (1944-1963):
In 1944, after the Peruvian Civil-War erupted and the national republican takeover of Equador, Carolina, Brasil, Colombia, and Paraguay met in Quito to discuss how to deal with the situation in Peru and also prevent the same from happening in other South American countries. The four nations decided to work together providing aid to Peru and other governments facing political instability, in the hope of maintaining the status quo on the continent.
The coalition ended in 1963, just after the closure of the conflict in Peru, but the interest in developing an organization with this objective was common among all the members. In the same year, in Buenos Aires, the four countries met to take the first steps toward developing the Organization of The Southern Cross.
Asunción Protocol (1966):
On August 30th, 1966, Brasil, Carolina, Colombia, Paraguay, and Chile signed the Asunción Protocol, officially establishing the Organization of The Southern Cross with the goal of promoting economic integration, reducing trade bureaucracy, and increasing welfare among the member countries.
Adhesion of countries:
|Country||Year of adhesion|
OTSC main articles
Article I: All parties agree upon the establishment of the Organization of The Southern Cross (OTSC) as an entity.
Article II: The parties agree on Asunción, Paraguay, as the headquarter of the OTSC.
Article III: The component organs of the OTSC follow:
- Common Market Consil;
- Trade Comission;
- Consultative Forum;
- Administrative Secretary;
- Project Fund of South America;
- OTSC Secretary of Transparency.
Article IV: New organs, under the jurisdiction of such protocol, are permitted to be created in the future.
Article IX: The presidency of the OTSC follows an alphabetic order of member nations. The president is appointed by the head of state - In the case of Carolina, Head of Government- following the order: Brasil;Carolina;Chile;Colombia; Paraguay; Peru. The presidency of the organization office is a two-year long term.
Article XII: All parties agree the objectives of the OTSC follows:
- Elimination of taxation over trade between the member nations;
- Visa-free border crossing for member nations citizens;
- Free trade of services;
- Free flux of capital;
- Promotion of integration through the development of shared infrastructure and welfare projects.