Hunedoara Agreement

From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty
Corvin Castle, where the agreement was signed

The Hunedoara Agreement (also known as the Magyar-Romanian Treaty, sometimes referred to as the Székely Agreement and the Transylvanian Compromise), signed on 2 August 1938, was a bilateral treaty between Magyarian and Romanian representatives that outlined both countries' post-war territorial organization, as well as establishing the foundation for their bilateral relations. A Russian delegation was also present, playing the role of mediator. The agreement was preceded by a series of talks that took place in Corvin Castle, after which Mátyás Novák, MNF general and war hero, and Alexandru Dragoş, Romanian Minister of Foreign Affairs, signed the historic agreement.


At the earliest stages of the Invasion of Austria the question of post-war reorganization was discussed between the various parties of the Eastern Front. Romania, set out by the nationalist government to unify the Romanian people, had initially claimed the historical regions of Bukovina, Transylvania and Banat from the Austrian Empire, and as of May 1938 they occupied Bukovina and small parts of Transylvania. By that point, Magyar forces, consisting mostly of NLM revolutionaries at the time, were in full fledged revolt, having risen up and taken over large swathes of Austrian-controlled territories with significant Magyar populations. This included Magyar population centres in Transylvania, especially in the region of Székelyföld (also known as Szeklerland).

Magyarian stance

The Magyar National Liberation Movement had maintained from its inception that the ultimate objective of the organization is to unite all Magyars into an independent state, which why following in the course of the Magyar Revolution multiple towns and villages with large Magyar and Székely-Magyar communities in Transylvania and Banat came under control of NLM (and later MNF) insurgents.

Romanian stance

Teodorescu's national republican government put emphasis on complete Romanian unification as being necessary for the nations survival and success ever since the Moldavian Revolution. In 1938, this made the incorporation of Bukovina, Transylvania and Banat into Romania a priority for the country. In turn, the Magyar takeover of key settlements in the disputed area was a cause for concern and immediate action, to such a point that there were calls for attacking the Magyar rebels and pushing them out of the claimed Romanian territories, however most officials supported a diplomatic resolution.

Russian role

The Russian National Republic saw the potential conflict between its two allies as a threat to national republicanism and, as a result, a major challenge for Russian foreign policy. Using its position both as the largest force fighting Austria as well as a major ally of both countries', Moscow pressured the two sides to hold comprehensive talks with intent to sign a bilateral treaty to further cooperation. At the negotiations Russia played the role of mediator, as well as representing its own interests and that of the planned Jewish State in Galicia.


The chosen location - Corvin Castle in Hunedoara (Vajdahunyad) - carries significant meaning for the cultural ties between Magyars and Romanians. The castle was built and owned by the Hunyadi family, who were prominent Royal Hungarian and Wallachian nobles.

Resulting agreement

The 4-day long talks resulted in a successful agreement between Romanian and Magyarian officials, with brought up topics ranging from the upcoming territorial changes of both countries' to their cooperation in the cultural and ecological fields. The key points of the agreement are:

  • The Austrian provinces of Siebenbürgen and Thisseland are to be split into the Temporary Occupation Zones of Magyarian Transylvania and Romanian Transylvania and are to be integrated into their respective nations after the war
  • The Austrian province of Banat is to be split into the Temporary Occupation Zones of Magyarian Banat and Romanian Banat and are to be integrated into their respective nations after the war
  • The Austrian province of Bukowina is to be transferred to Romania
  • The Austrian province of Ungvar is to be organised into the Temporary Occupation Zone of Subcarpathia and is to be integrated into the Magyarian State after the war
  • Romania is to respect the national and cultural identity of Magyars and Székler-Magyars in Romania; to respect the Magyar language; to preserve sites of Magyar and Székler-Magyar national heritage; to create an autonomous territory for Székler-Magyars with separate laws and legislation; to allow Magyars and Székler-Magyars free travel to and from Magyaria; to consult Magyaria on legal matters pretaining to Székler-Magyars
  • Romania is to recognise the Magyarian State upon its formal establishment
  • Magyaria is to rescind any and all territorial claims against Romania; to pledge to deny any such claims in the future
  • Magyaria and Romania are to support each other diplomatically; to pursue deepening economic and cultural ties; to further the cause of anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism and universal right for self-determination
  • Magyaria and Romania pledge to support the creation of a Jewish State in Galicia; to recognize its independence and right to exist upon its inception; to assist in guaranteeing its sovereignty


The negotiations in Corvin Castle were of vital importance for each party involved, which is why each delegation consisted of notable high-profile statesmen, diplomats and military officers. The Magyar delegation was led by General Mátyás Novák, who had overseen the Debrecen and Banszag revolts and won the Battle of Gyula. He was also a high ranking member of the NLM Romania was represented by Foreign Minister Alexandru Dragoş, a vocal supporter of peaceful solution to the Transylvanian Issue who sought to establish cordial ties and secure a sturdy web of National Republican alliances. The Russian Lieutenant General Bogdan Lisitsin, military attaché to Romania, headed the Russian delegation. The three officials played a major role in facilitating, having all taken part in each session of discussion. They were also known to have friendly attitudes towards one another and to effectively resolve heated discussions. Novák, Dragoş and Lisitsin signed the Agreement at 16:41 on 2nd August, 1938.


The agreement can be considered a resounding success. Not only did it resolve a major territorial dispute of two powerful National Republican nations, but it led to the establishment of consistently warm ties between Magyaria and Romania. It is also considered to have paved the way for the IRCs framework in Europe.