From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty

Pre-SW timeline

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Spanish Era


  • 1700 - The Sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao fight for dominance and control of trade in the region.
  • 1719 - The Zamboanga Garrison is reoccupied, A Friar-led mob executes the reformist Governor-General Francisco Bustamante
  • 1737 - Peace Treaty signed between Spain and Sulu
  • 1739 - The first viable road system from Manila to Northern Luzon opens
  • 1743 - British attacks on the Galleon Trade between Acapulco and Manila increased.
  • 1744 - Francisco Dagohoy’s rebellion starts in Bohol when his brother is refused to be given a Christian Burial by the Catholic Church. The Revolt would only be quelled in 1829.
  • 1745 - The Agrarian Revolt starts in Cavite and Batangas over control and access to Hacienda Lands.
  • 1747 - 1756 - The Spanish Bombardment of Jolo in 1752 led to Sulu’s defeat and the imprisonment of the Sultan. In his absence, Datu Bantilan launches a coup and crowns himself as Sultan Muizzudin. While the Sultan is nominally anti-spanish, the weakened state of the Sultanate forced him to sign an uneasy peace with Spain.
  • 1750 - The Great Silesian War starts. Some Filipino sharpshooters were used by Spain in North America during the Prince Maurice War.
  • 1754 - King Ferdinand VI Decrees the compulsory teaching of Spanish in all schools to Boys and Girls.
  • 1768 - The Jesuits are expelled, The Archbishop of Manila supports the secularization of parishes (transfer from religious orders to diocesan control) and the ordination of indio priests. The Ordinances of Good Government are issued by Madrid.
  • 1771 - Governor-General Simon de Anda encounters resistance from the religious orders and uses troops to enforce secularization
  • 1774 - King Charles III reaffirms secularization policy by a royal decree ordering the secularization of parishes as they fall vacant
  • 1777 - A Royal decree orders indios to participate in the production of cotton and other fibers
  • 1781 - Governor-General Basco y Vargas implements the tobacco monopoly, limiting productions to areas designated by the government.
  • 1785 - The Royal Company of the Philippines is established to promote economic development.


  • 1803 - A Royal decree orders the secularization of more parishes
  • 1805 - The Governor of Zamboanga signs a peace treaty with the Sultan of Sulu, giving the governor the right to vet foreign residents in the archipelago.
  • 1807 - Spanish Deserters revolt in Ilocos to protest the government’s wine monopoly and prohibition of the production of Basi (Rice wine)
  • 1811 - Del Superior Gobierno, the colony’s first newspaper, begins publication. The Philippines sends a delegate to the Cortes. During the Agustine Wars, the Captaincy sent their colonial army to seize Western Papua from the Dutch-aligned sultanate of Tidore. They would slowly expand their holdings in northern Papua, building on the centuries-old Tidorese imperial administration.
  • 1815 - The Galleon Trade ends as the Spanish crown allows the use of registered ships or navíos de registro in the Pacific that traveled solo outside of the convoy system of the galleons.
  • 1826 - A Monarchist counteroffensive ends further secularization of the parishes
  • 1827 - A Spanish attack on Jolo is repulsed
  • 1829 - Spanish raiding parties establish a presence in the Gran Cordilleras
  • 1830s - In Response to the "Spring of Nations", The Philippine Colonial Administration is reformed as the natives are given more representation in the Cortez.
  • 1834 - A royal decree declared Manila and other Port Cities open to international trade.
  • 1835 - The Philippines sends four delegates as representation in the Cortes. Economic Monopolies on Tobacco, Sugar, and other produce are abolished
  • 1836 - Spain signs a commercial treaty with the Sultan of Sulu
  • 1837 - Tariff Regulations are lessened in the islands.
  • 1840 - 1841 - Hermano De la Cruz began his infamous religious revolt against Spain in response to the abuse of Filipino priests by the Catholic Church and in response created his own religious order called “Confradia de San José”. Because of this, the Spanish government sent in troops to forcibly break up the order, forcing De la Cruz and his followers to rise in armed revolt in self-defense. Many bloody battles were fought with the order's last stand in Mount San Cristobal, near Mount Banahaw, in October 1841. The Spaniards eventually won, and Hermano de la Cruz was executed on November 4, 1841.
  • 1848 - 1851 - The Spanish attack Balangigi in the Sulu Archipelago to free 300 captives. The Sulu Sultanate signs an agreement recognizing Spanish Authority
  • 1850 - The Second Spanish-Dutch War starts, Governor-General Narciso Claveria decrees that Indios be given Spanish Surnames, The first steam warship arrives in Manila.
  • 1853 - The British Company Smith, Bell and Company is established in Manila and becomes a major trader of sugar and hemp. A Dutch Naval attack is repulsed once more outside of Manila.
  • 1855 - The Second Spanish-Dutch War ends, Spain gains the Dutch Moluccas, centered on the island of Halmahera. The Ternateños, the creole ruling class of the Spanish Moluccas two centuries prior, returned to Halmahera. They became the primary colonial admins of the newly established, semi-autonomous Captaincy of the Moluccas, with its capital and largest city being Ternate.
  • 1856 - A British Consul arrives in Iloilo and Negros, with his 13-year residence helping transform the islands into a major sugar plantation
  • 1859 - The Jesuits return to the Philippines and accept missions to the Muslim areas.
  • 1861 - Separation of Executive and Judicial Functions is mandated at the alcalde mayor and governor-general levels
  • 1863 - The Educational Decree mandates the establishment of a Public school system
  • 1864 - Father Jose Burgos publishes a “Manifesto addressed by the loyal Filipinos to the Noble Spanish nation” criticizing the Spanish discrimination of Secular Priests
  • 1865 - The Jesuits establish the Escuela Normal (Normal School) and the Secondary School called Ateneo Municipal De Manila
  • 1868 - The Guardia Civil is established to suppress crime and insurgencies
  • 1872 - The Philippines is re-established as its own Viceroyalty as Spain’s dependencies in Southeast Asia becomes too many to efficiently govern through New Spain. José Malcampo y Monje, the 3rd Marquess of San Rafael, becomes its first Viceroy.
  • 1873 - More Philippine ports are opened to world trade
  • 1876 - Combined Spanish and Indio forces overrun Jolo
  • 1877 - The 1877 Agreement was signed, with France, England, and the Netherlands recognizing Spain and the Philippines, Sovereignty over the Sulu Archipelago and North Borneo.

Revolutionary Period

  • 1877 - 1878 - The Spanish Communard Revolution began when French and Spanish radicals overthrew the Monarchy, only to be defeated a year later with the support of the British. The aftermath of the Communard Revolutions in Spain is directly linked to the Independence of Mexico in 1881, the independence of Peru, and the eventually the outbreak of the Philippine Insurrection.
  • 1878 - Sultan Jamal ul-Azam of Sulu signs a treaty of peace and capitulation with the Philippines, the last treaty signed between the two.
  • 1883 - Spanish Forces invade Sulu and set up a naval station and garrison. Sultan Bada ud-Din II sends a letter of protest to the French, calling the invasion a violation of the 1877 agreement
  • 1887 - Crisostomo Ibarra published No me toques. A three-man committee reports to the archbishop of Manila that the novel be banned due to being “Heretical and offensive to the Government of Spain”, especially after the breakaway and Independence of Mexico a few years prior.
  • 1888 - France, The Netherlands, and Spain sign a new protocol reiterating recognition of Spanish and Philippine Sovereignty over Sulu and North Borneo. Filipino expatriates in Spain establishes La Liga Filipinas and issue their first fortnightly newspaper the following year
  • 1890 - Inspired by the Mexican revolt and the Communard Revolution in Spain, A Filipino nationalist named Mayo Pag-Asa establishes the pro-independence Kataastaasan Katipunan ng mga anak ng Katagalugan (Supreme Society of the Children of the Tagalog Nation), simply known as the Katipunan.
  • 1891 - Ibarra published El Filibusterismo. His family is removed from the Friar estates they lease. The Sultanate of Maguindanao fractures and collapses into several factions vying for the vacant throne. Spain takes advantage of the situation and launches an expedition to pacify the Cotabato and Lanao areas. The Katipunan leadership would manage to contact the Corean and Mexican Governments and secure funding and support, allowing the Katipunan’s network to expand not only in the Philippines but also Maluku and even Nueva Guinea. Talks between the Katipunan and several Vietnamese nationalist organizations regarding cooperation would begin.
  • 1892 - A railroad line is established that connects Manila to Pangasinan. Ibarra returns to Manila, establishes La Solidaridad, and is exiled to Northern Mindanao.
  • 1894 - Municipal Government is reorganized, separating executive and judicial functions.
  • 1896 - the Katipunan plot was discovered by the authorities and Pag-Asa’s revolt began a few days after, attacking the town of San Juan Del Monte and seizing it from Spanish Forces. Ibarra and his Family flees to Cuba to escape prosecution.
  • 1897 - Balderama Jacinto replaced Pag-Asa when the latter was captured and executed by Spanish Forces. Katipunan forces in Maluku and Nueva Guinea are defeated by the year’s end.
  • 1898 - Vietnamese buddhists revolt in Annam. Jacinto and his leadership go into voluntary exile to Kwongchou after the signing of the Treaty of Malolos with allowances from the Spanish Government under the agreement that Spain would introduce the reforms the revolutionaries listed, but when Spain failed to implement the reforms, the remaining katipunan factions in Pangasinan, Ilocos, Morong, Negros, Panay, Bicol and Cebu continue fighting on. At the same time, Moro insurgents in Cotabato rebel against the Spanish authorities. Jacinto would use the money given by Spain to buy more arms for the revolutionaries.
  • 1899 - The Katipunan Rebels in Pangasinan are defeated, but an Anarchist organization called “Guardia de Honor” continues to terrorize the countryside. The Federal State of the Visayas was established in Iloilo by Bisayan Revolutionaries who split from their Tagalog Counterparts due to disagreements regarding policies and governance, but the revolutionary state disbands after a major defeat in the Battle of Iloilo City and most of its leadership either captured or killed, with the Cantonal Republic of Negros being immediately established as a successor state.
  • 1900 - The Negros Republic is defeated and disbanded after a disastrous defeat at Dumageuete. The remaining Katipunan rebels in the Mountains of Morong would establish the “Tagalog Republic'' with Vicente Sakay as its first president. The Republic would only be put down in 1916.

Post-Insurrection Years

  • 1902 - The Spanish Viceroyalty passes the Las Filipinas Bill of 1902, which added several liberal reforms in an attempt to prevent another large scale revolt. The Sultanate of Sulu declares independence once more and attacks Spanish Garrisons in both Jolo and Basilan, while a resurgent Maguindanao Sultanate under Datu Mamaku of Buayan launches several offensives in the Kutabato region in an attempt to regain their lost territories. With Spanish forces still spread out stomping out the remaining katipuneros, the Chavacano creole of Zamboanga declares independence from Spain. The revolt lasted only for a week, with its first president, Macario Alvarez, being betrayed by his commanders for his Vice President, Datu Batayan, who then was killed in the siege of Zamboanga when Spanish forces returned to reclaim the city.
  • 1903 - A Spanish Naval counterattack on Jolo and the subsequent victory of Spanish forces in Isabela de Basilan forces the Sulu Sultan to the negotiation table. Spain implements a harsh treaty on the Sultanate by effectively reducing the Sultan’s authority to a mere figurehead. The Sultanate of Sulu finally ceases to exist as a sovereign state as the Viceroyalty establishes the Governorate of Sulu.
  • 1905 - Maguindanaon forces are defeated by the Southern Expeditionary Force in the Siege of Dansalan. In a few months, Kutabato will be besieged and captured by the Spanish while Datu Mamaku flees to Zamboanga Sibugay. He would later be captured in 1907 and hanged, ending the Sultanate of Maguindanao.
  • 1907 - The Spanish Cortes General declares the “Philippine Insurrection” over. Ibarra leaves Cuba to join the Exiled Katipuneros in Kwongchou.
  • 1910 - The Viceroyalty establishes the “Moro Province”, which merged Muslim Mindanao and Zamboanga under the rule of the Spanish Army.
  • 1912 - The first national convention of provincial governors are held in Manila, this would later be followed by the elections for the delegates of the First Philippine Assembly.
  • 1913 - the Spanish-run Viceroyalty and the Filipino-held Philippine Assembly clash over appointments.
  • 1916 - Filipino and Spanish forces arrest Vicente Sakay and the remaining members of the Tagalog Republic. All of them are sentenced to death by firing squad for sedition, treason, and banditry.
  • 1919 - The First “Philippine Independence” Mission is sent to Spain to negotiate with the Spanish Government on the terms of independence. This mission is led by Manuel Osmena and Sergio Quezon.
  • 1920 - Crisostomo Ibarra establishes a Pan-Malay Organization called the “East Indies Organization''. This Organization would eventually spread out and inspire almost every Pro-Independence party and groups all over the Malay Archipelago. This creates tension between Ibarra and Jacinto, who only wanted independence for the Philippine islands only and believes that only “Hispanic Asia” is ripe for independence. The rift between the two would eventually cause Ibarra to be expelled from the Katipunan, which is now renamed to Partido Nacional Filipinas.
  • 1921 - The Independence talks went nowhere and the Mission returned to Manila empty handed. General Don Salvi-Damaso, the former Governor of the Moro Province, becomes the Viceroy, vowing to roll back what he calls the “Indio-nization” of the Viceroyalty.
  • 1923 - Conflict between Filipino leaders and Salvi-Damaso reaches a high point. The Philippine Assembly issues a resolution calling for Salvi-Damaso’s resignation and another mission is sent to Spain. The Cortes-General agreed with the demands and Damaso was sacked and replaced by Don Tiburcio de Espadaña, a more liberal viceroy and the former governor-general of Spanish New Guinea. Around the same time, the Floridian War of Independence starts, resulting in Filipino Soldiers being sent abroad to fight the rebels.
  • 1924 - The Anarchist Organization called “Pag-Asa” began a series of attacks on the Constabulary and the Spanish Army. The Philippine Assembly forms a Supreme National Council to coordinate a “Campaign of Independence” and invites Jacinto’s Partido Nacionalista back to the Philippines. This sparked tensions with the Spanish Viceroyalty and resulted in Espadaña being forced by the Spanish Monarchy to abolish the Council. Nonetheless, Jacinto returns to Manila secretly.
  • 1927 - Spain’s defeat in the “Everglades War” tanked the legitimacy and prestige of the Spanish Monarchy, this was taken advantage by both the assembly and the nacionalistas who began to aggressively push for independence. Ibarra relocated to Batavia in the Dutch East Indies to establish the official headquarters of the East Indies Organization. Espadaña dies while having surgery. Rafael Guevara replaced him a year later.
  • 1928 - Disagreements in the Nacionalistas lead to a split, with Manuel Osmena and Sergio Quezon establishing the Partido Demokratiko - Pederal as the main opposition to Jacinto’s more unitary and authoritarian party. In Mindanao, several Moro Nationalists headed by the “Sultan” of Sulu Jamalul Kiram II formed the underground Moro National Independence League.
  • 1929 - The Spanish Monarchy is forced into abdication by Spanish Republicans and Anti-Colonial Reformers, leading to the creation of the Spanish Republic. Spain then announces that referendums would be held across its empires to decide whether the colonies would want independence or not. Naturally, the Philippines voted for independence in an overwhelming majority. The two dominant parties of the Nacionalistas and the Democrat-Federalists clash on who gets to lead the newly independent Philippines. Crisostomo Ibarra died of old age in Bandung, but not before finishing and publishing his final book, “The Prospects of a Greater Malayan State”.
  • 1930 - Following the referendum, the newly-established Spanish Parliament approves of Philippine Independence after a five-year transition. Filipinos elect representatives to a convention to draft a constitution, with the Democrat-Federalists gaining majority.
  • 1931 - The Constitution is approved by the Spanish Government and the Filipino People in a Plebiscite. Osmena is elected President with Quezon as the Vice President. The Philippines was to be divided into six new Federal States, which are Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao, Moroland, Borneo Del Norte, and Maluku Del Norte. A majority-"Indigenous" autonomous state called "Igorotes" was created to cover the Native Tribes of the vastlu uncontrolled Cordillera Mountains. The Philippines also gains New Guinea as their own mandate.
  • 1933 - Indigenous Tribes all over the Luzon lowlands are forced by the Federal Government to relocate to the “Igorotes”. Violence would ensue as several indigenous Dumagats, Agtas, Remontados, and other Negrito tribes began taking arms to defend their ancestral domains from the Federal Government, marking the start of the Igorot Wars.


Great War Era

  • 1935 - The Philippines officially gained independence from Spain. In order to address the issues of inefficient governance in several territories, President Osmena announces the Integrated Reorganization Plan which seeks to redraw the administrative borders of the Philippines. Several proposals would be drawn by several lawmakers, with Esteban Garcia’s proposal being chosen by the Philippine Congress to be enacted in 1938, calling 21 Federal States as well as two or more "Indigenous Autonomous Regions" for the Native Tribes in the Lowlands and Highlands. When the Russo-Turkish War escalated into the Great War, the Philippine Government officially declared neutrality in the war, though the Philippines would quietly continue to trade with the British and the Portuguese.
  • 1936 - A Group of Ni-Van Nationalists launched an attempted coup in the State of Islas Del Espiritu Santu in order to declare an independent indigenous state from the majority catholic Philippines. The Coup failed when the group took over the City hall of Puerto Prinsipe only to be trapped inside by the Philippine Constabulary and the Army. All Ni-Van Nationalists were shot dead. The 1936 Elections take place, with President Osmena being elected once more for his second term along with Quezon.
  • 1938 - The first phase of the reorganization begins in April 12, leading to the creations of the Federal States of the Ilocos, Pangasinan, La Montanosa, Central Tagalog, Southern Tagalog, Bicoland, and Paragua in Luzon, while the States of the Visayas and Filipinas Oriental in the Visayas on June 2. Along with the reorganization comes new discriminatory ethnic laws against what the catholic majority describes as "savage indios", leading to further galvanization of the Tribal Ethnic Groups, who are now united under the Communard-inspired Alianza de Liberación Indígena (ALI). A few weeks before the end of the Great War, the Philippines would declare war on France over a disputed territory between French Borneo and the State of Borneo Del Norte. With British support, the Philippines would gain the Api-Api district from French Borneo, though there were several attempts from the radical faction of Ibarraists to convince the Federal Government to take all of French Borneo as the First Step in recognizing Ibarra’s Pan-Malay ambitions, all of which were declined.
  • 1939 -  Second phase of the reorganization was set in motion, leading to the creation of the States of Zamboanga, Misamis, Agusan, Surigao, Davao, Cotabato, and finally Bukidnon, which is another Indigenous-majority region made specifically for the Lumad tribes in Mindanao. In light of the dissolution of Moroland, the Moro National Independence League began carrying out a propaganda campaign against the Federal Government accusing them of purposefully removing the Moro’s autonomy to further “de-islamify” Mindanao. In response, President Osmena insists that the majority Muslim-state of Cotabato and Koronadal would still enforce the autonomy of the Moro Peoples, and soon establishes the Department of Moroland and Sulu in order to help further enforce their autonomy.

Silent War Era

  • 1942 - President Osmena signs the Military Modernization and Industry act, allowing the Philippine Military to begin buying military equipment from Britain, the Netherlands, and Mexico, as well buying licenses from the British and Dutch to begin manufacturing their own localized weapons. The Tribal Insurgency in the Cordilleras worsens when Igorotes is officially reorganized into the Federal State of La Montanosa. In the 1942 Elections, Manuel Osmena was defeated by Esteban Garcia y Ricarte of the "Makapili" (Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino) faction of the Nationalist Party, who promised a stronger Federal Government, a stronger economy as well as a powerful military to finally end an end the Igorot War. His election to the presidency proved to be controversial due to his violent acts against non-cooperative citizens during his time as a Rebel Officer during the rebellion against Spain, as well as his extreme views advocating for a fully Catholic and "Latinized" Southeast Asia under the leadership of Manila. Just a few months into his administration, on December 5, A two-week Civil Rights protest held by the Ibaloi and Ifugao locals ended in bloodshed after they were fired upon by the Constabulary, who justified by saying that the protest was infiltrated by the ALI who fired the first shot. This event will be known as the Baguio Massacre, and would mark the beginning of the Makapili's brutal regime.
  • 1943 - Balderama Jacinto died from Cholera on February 6 at the age of 74. Ricarte orders that a State Funeral be held in Jacinto’s honor, with the Congress designating February 6 as Jacinto Day, now known as Founders’ Day as a general celebration of the “Founding Fathers” of the modern Filipino State. Arsenal Del Gobierno is established by the government as the first local arms manufacturer of the Philippines, producing weapons such as Firearms and Ammunition for the Federal Army. In Mindanao, the Sulu Sultan dies with no heir, effectively bringing an end to the Kiram Dynasty of Sulu.
  • 1944/45 - The growing authoritarian nature of Ricarte’s administration leads to the creation of radical left-wing political parties, the most notable of which being the Partido Colectivista ng Filipinas, a communard-inspired movement led by Hermenegildo Cuyugan, who is a prominent leader of a Worker’s Union in Ilocos. On the other hand, the war with the ALI makes a turn for the worse for the Army when a coordinated offensive within the state of La Montanosa leads to several towns being captured by the rebels, most prominent being the town of Lagayan near the border of Ilocos. The rebels then proclaimed the establishment of their independent indigenous state, the Kalinga Free State, which would last stay relatively independent from the Federal Government until 1954.
  • 1946 - The Arsenal Del Gobierno produces its first local firearm, the ADG Modelo 1 Karbine, a reproduction of the British Lee-Enfield Jungle Carbine. When the Kampuchea fell into a civil war, The Philippine Government expressed support and aid for the Kampuchean Monarchy to show their desire to become a member of the Organization of Democratic Nations. Dutch and Mexican Armored vehicles finally arrived in Manila as part of the modernization of the country’s armored forces.
  • 1947 - When Viet-nam launched an intervention in Kampuchea, the Philippine Government once again expressed their support. Ricarte signed the Naval Modernization Act, an amendment to the Military Modernization and Industry act which adds a budget and incentive for the Federal Navy to modernize and acquire new assets. In the same year, Tamaraw Motors was founded by Rogelio Mendoza - De Guzman, later known as the Father of the Philippine Motor Industry as he would pioneer the production of local vehicles such as Cars and Trucks, and eventually would expand also to the arms industry as the producer of engines for and even armored vehicles. Up north, the ALI launches an offensive deep into Northern Cagayan, almost capturing the capital of Tuguegarao. Fortunately, the Army, the constabulary, and local militias managed to hold the town against the rebels. This battle also marked the first use of the Modelo 1 Karbine in combat. In New Guinea, a plot to overthrow Filipino rule by a group of Papuan Nationalists is uncovered and stopped, ending with the execution of almost 20 Papuans in Soron.
  • 1948 - Britain forms the Pacific Rim Security Treaty, a collective alliance of British-aligned Asia-Pacific countries with the Philippines agreeing to host the Alliance’s headquarters in Manila. The Philippines began to export the Modelo 1 to neighboring countries such as Viet-Nam and the Kampuchean Monarchists. President Ricarte signed the Land Reform Act of 1948, which provided large re-organizations and the nationalization of the Agricultural Sector through the Department of Agriculture. This caused tensions with the Radical Left as the Reform also meant that farmers effectively lost ownership of their own land as it was carved up and then controlled by powerful national companies. In Mindanao, the reform was even more detrimental to the Moros as it forcibly took muslim lands and hand it over to catholic settlers in Mindanao. Angered by the new reforms, Farmers all over the country began to protest against the government, with several leftist organizations providing support for them. With the output of rice and other important crops shattered by the boycott, the government ordered the army and the constabulary to begin a crackdown against the farmers, culminating in the “Battle” of Cabanatuan wherein Government forces fired against a crowd of protesters, with the farmers forming their own militias to fight back against them, resulting to hundreds of casualties after the Army regain control of the town. In response, President Ricarte and eventually the Congress outlawed hundreds of unions and leftist organizations, with thousands of its members being arrested and tried with charges ranging from economic damages to even treason. Notable leftist figures such as Cuyugan would flee into the wilderness of Central Luzon and other islands, eventually founding several communard guerrilla groups such as Cuyugan’s Hukbong Bayan in Northern Luzon and the Makabayan Liberacion of Western Visayas.
  • 1950 - The University of Santo Tomas pioneers the Television Broadcasts. Twenty-three high ranking officials of the Hukbong Syndikalista and other anarchist guerilla groups in the Southern Tagalog State are captured or killed in a series of raids by the Constabulary, led by PC Captain Rodolfo L. Salonga. The Walled City of Intramuros is turned into a Federal District of the Philippine Government once more, with the Office of the President being moved to the Palacio del Gobernador from the nearby Malacanang Palace. Immediately after, a bomb was detonated in the nearby Fort Santiago, now an office of the Intramuros Constabulary, which resulted to the deaths of ten officers and injured 5 more. President Ricarte would blame the several communard groups and would declare that the privilege of writ of habeas corpus would be suspended in regards to any suspected communards.