List of rulers of Japan

From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty

The rulers of Japan have nominally been its Emperors, whether effectively or nominally, for its entire recorded history. From the 1192 to 1895, political power was concentrated in the hands of regents and xoguns.

Period Nominal rulers Effective rulers Capital(s)
Early and Heian Emperors Emperors

Soga clan, 530s–645, Fudjiwara clan, 850s–1070, Taira clan, 1160s–1185

Nara

Miaco

Camacura Camacura xoguns, 1192–1333

Regents, 1203–1333

Camacura
Cenmu Restoration Emperor Go-Daigo, 1333–1336

Axicaga Tacaudji, 1333–1336

Miaco
Muromachi Axicaga xoguns, 1338–1568 (1573)

Northern Court Emperors, 1336–1392, Sacai Qubō (Hosocawa & Mioxi clan), 1527–1532 Regional daimios

Miaco
Azuchi-Momoyama Oda Nobunaga, 1568–1582

Tojotomi Hidejoxi, 1582–1598 Five Commissioners, 1585–1600 Council of Five Elders, 1598–1600

Azuchi

Miaco

Osaca

Edo Tocugawa xoguns, 1603–1754

Tairō, 1636–1754

Edo
Maruoca-Odawara Tocugawa xoguns, 1754-1809

Sacai xoguns, 1785-1809 Regional daimyōs

Edo

Miaco

Osaca

Cumohama Sacai xoguns, 1809-1896

Tairō, 1849-1896

Northern Tocugawa xoguns, 1809-1835

Osaca
Imperial Emperors, 1896-

List of emperors

Emperor Reign Personal name Notes
Go-Sai 後西天皇 1655 1658 Nagahito
Reigen 霊元天皇 1658 1691 Satohito
Tacacawa 高河天皇 1691 1711 Naruhito
Comei 孝明天皇 1711 1720 Torihito
Nagazono 長園天皇 1720 1758 Osahito
Go-Tacacawa 後高河天皇 1758 1766 Joxihito
Go-Comei 後孝明天皇 1766 1794 Taquohito
Canacami 悲上天皇 1794 1803 Toohito
Reiwa 令和天皇 1803 1839 Narahito
Ximicado 令御門天皇 1839 1858 Çuruhito
Djungon 淳元天皇 1858 1883 Tomohito
Catoqu 花徳天皇 1883 1892 Haruhito
Sacuramachi 桜町天皇 1892 1920 Mixico

List of xoguns

Tocugawa family

Name Term Duration Notes
Iejasu 1600 1605 5 years
Hidetada 1605 1623 18 years
Iemiçu 1623 1651 28 years
Ieçuna 1651 1663 12 years
Çunaxige 1663 1687 24 years
Çunajoxi 1687 1717 30 years
Joximichi 1717 1728 11 years
Iehiro 1728 1741 13 years
Quijohime 1741 1745 4 years
Iejuqui 1745 1754 9 years
Later Tocugawa (1754-1809)
Northern Tocugawa (1809-1835)

Sacai family

Name Term Duration Notes
Tadamichi 1800 1813 28 years
Tadahiro 1813 1821 8 years
Miçumori 1821 1825 4 years
Tadamasa 1825 1846 21 years
Miçujuqui 1846 1870 24 years
Masaqui 1870 1885 15 years
Tadaçune 1885 1891 6 years
Tadajoxi 1891 1896 5 years
Sacai pretenders (1896-)

See also