Talk:Standard Chinese

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Pinyin to Standard romanization

Pinyin ITTL Notes Other rules
q /tɕʰ/ ć /tɕʰ/
  • Alveolo-palatal consonants; palatalization is marked with an acute accent ◌́.
  • ITTL, Standard Chinese only palatalizes some consonants in front of the vowels /y/ and /i/ compared to OTL.
  • Palatalization would not usually be represented in maps, posters, etc, usually only for situations when pronunciation is important. Though in reality, palatalization would vary from speaker to speaker.
  • Generally look at the Wiktionary pages of characters: for example, you may except (OTL jing) to be źing ITTL. However, looking at the Cantonese and Middle Chinese makes it clear that it is ging.
  • In common but not state-approved romanization:
    • Anglophone world: final -i may turn into -y, as in Zu Sugwey.
    • Batavophone world: ei might be spelled ij and ai might be spelled ÿ.
j /tɕ/ ź /tɕ/
x /ɕ/ ś /ɕ/
ch /ʈʂʰ/ c /tsʰ/
  • Retroflex consonants, which exist in OTL Mandarin, do not exist in TTL Standard Chinese. These are usually pronounced as their pure alveolar versions /tsʰ, ts, s/.
zh /ʈʂ/ z /ts/
sh /ʂ/ s /s/
-an /an/ -am (sometimes) /am/
  • Sometimes in TTL Mandarin, -an reverts to the pre-modern Chinese and Cantonese -am. Check Wiktionary to see if this is applicable.
  • For example in (OTL Gan), the Gan is Gam in Cantonese and in the Middle Chinese reconstruction. Thus, it is Gam ITTL.
er /ɤɻ/ j /ji/
  • Erhua does not exist in the TTL Standard - er is usually replaced by ji in the formal standardization, though speakers with an erhua background might pronounce and write it with er anyways. Hokkien speakers may use ni.
  • In words starting with r like 人 (OTL ren), the r would be usually replaced with a j, giving jen.




  • Generally, u turns into w in finals, except for the exception right below.
  • Ao also turns into aw.
yu y-

u-, -u- ü

  • In Pinyin, the /y/ sound is represented by the digraph yu- & -ü- OTL, it is represented by y- or u- at the start of words, ü when it stands alone, and -u- in finals.