Talk:Standard Chinese

From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty

Cantonese-influenced ONP

Initials chart

Initials chart
Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatals Velar Glottal
plain labial
Nasal m [m] 摸 n [n] 挪 ng [ng] 我
Stop plain b [p] 波 d [t] 多 g [k] 哥 [ʔ] 亞
aspirated p [pʰ] 婆 t [tʰ] 拖 k [kʰ] 卡
Affricative plain ç [ts] 知
aspirated c [tsʰ] 雌
Fricative plain f [f] 科 s [s] 思 x [ʂ]~[ʃ] 書2 h [h] 何
Approximant l [l] 羅3 j [j] 也 w [w] 華


  • 1[ts] and [tsʰ] is uncommonly palatalized before certain finals as [tɕ] and [tɕʰ], though these are not represented in writing.
  • 2The traditional Mandarin [ɕ], as in 心 (/ɕin/), is vocalized as [ʃ] by the vast majority of speakers. While x was initially supposed to purely represent the [ʂ] phoneme, many speakers in southern China pronounce it as [ʃ]. Dialectal speakers of Cantonese may completely substitute [ʃ] with the phoneme [s].
  • 3Several casual speakers in Cantonese-majority areas merge the initial /n/ with /l/. Some speakers in southwestern China merge the initial /l/ into /n/ as well. However, this practice is officially discouraged, and formal speakers retain a clear distinction between /n/ and /l/.

Finals chart

Finals chart
OTL IPA Oral Nasal
-1 -i -u -m -n -ng
aa [a] aa2 aa 呀 aai 挨 aau 拗 aam 監 aan 晏 aang 罌
a [ɐ] a ai 矮 au 歐 am 痷 an 恩 ang 鶯
e [ɛ~e] e4 e 誒 ei 非 eu 掉 em 舐 eng 鏡
i [i] i i 衣 iu 妖 im 淹 in 煙 ing 英
o [ɔ~o] o o 柯 oi 哀 ou 奧 on 安 ong 康
u [u~ʊ] u5 u 烏 ui 煨 un 碗 ung 甕
oe [œ] eu eu 靴 eung 香
y [y] ju6 ju 於 jun 冤
- m 唔 ng 五
Finals with medials
ia [ia] ia ia 倆 iau 表 ian 眼 iang 羊
ie [ie] ie ie 別
io [io] io iou 謬 iong 用
ua [wɐ] wa wa 哇 wai 威 wan 灣 wang 汪
ue [we] we wei 為 wen 問 weng 翁


  • 1In finals without final stop codas, they may be followed by an h in writing. For example, o (柯) may be written as oh.
  • 2When it is not necessary to use tone markers, aa is usually shortened to a, or a macron is added to indicate vowel length (ā). This is typical when transcribing place names or common personal names.
  • 4/e/ may be pronounced as [ə] or [ɤ] by some northern Chinese speakers.
  • 5/u/ is also transcribed as oe in accordance with Dutch orthography, particularly in the Batavosphere.
  • 5/ɵ/ is collapsed into /u/.
  • 6The digraph ju is also transcribed as joe. For example, the character 粵 (lit. Cantonese) is almost always transcribed as Joet.
  • The Mandarin syllable uo is merged into o. For example, 多 would be pronounced /to/ instead of /twɔ/.

Old attempts

Consonant chart
Labial Dental Sibilant Retroflex Palatal Velar Labialised Glottal
Stop or affricate voiceless p t ts k ʔ
aspirate tsʰ tʂʰ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative voiceless f s ʂ x
Approximant l j w
IPA Pinyin Romanization Notes Approximation
p b b spy
p p pie
m m m
f f f
t d d stand
t t tan
n n n
l l l
ts z ch/z Replaces obsolete sound t͡ɕ cats
tsʰ c Replaces obsolete sound t͡ɕʰ
s s s
zh zh
ʈ͡ʂʰ ch
ʂ sh sh
j y y/j you
ɥ yu-
k g g
k k can
ŋ ng ng
x h h
w w w wine
Tone Numbers Name Tone markers Pinyin
1 High flat ā
2 Rising á
3 Falling-rising ǎ
4 Falling à
5 Neutral a