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Labial Alveolar Post-alveolar Dorsal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d[1] g[2]
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ χ[3] h
voiced[4] v z ʒ ɦ
Approximant w[5] l j
Rhotic r[6]
  1. /d/ is devoiced at the ends of words as /t/.
  2. /g/ is an allophone of [χ] and is also used in loanwords.
  3. Merger of /ɣ/ and /x/. Before /j/, it can be fronted to /ç/.
  4. Voiced fricatives are generally devoiced by the majority of Amerikaens speakers.
  5. Due to influence from French and English, the original Dutch /ʋ/ came to be realised as /w/.
  6. [ʁ] and [ɾ] are allophones.
Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
short long short long short long
Close i i: y: u:
Close-mid o:
Mid ɛ ə œ œ: ɔ ɔ:
Near-open æ æ:
Open (a) ʌ ɑ ɑ:
Diphthongs ɑi æi ɑu ɛu œu ɔu ɔi
Graphemes of vowels
Grapheme IPA
checked free
a /ɑ/, /ʌ/ /ɑ:/
ae /ɑ/
e /ɛ/, /ə/ /eː/, /ə/
o /ɔ/, /ʌ/ /o:/
ö /o:/
ai, aei /ɑi/, /æi/
au(x), eau(x) /o:/
auw /ɔu/
ie /i/, /ə/ /i:/
î /e:/
îuw, ieuw /e:u/, /iu/
ey /ɛi/
eu /œ:/
oi /ɔi/
ou. ouw /ɔu/
ÿ /ɑi/, /æi/
ü /u:/
uy, üy /œu/, /ɛu/
ue /y:/
uw /yu/

Old Orthography Reference

Dutch aa d ee ei f ij k l m oo oe ui uu
Amerikaens ae dt[1] î ey v[2] ÿ ck ll[3] mm[4] ö ü uy ue