History of Soenda

From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty

Premodern history

The earliest kingdoms in Soenda were Indianised states that primarily emerged in Djava, Malaya, Sumatera, and southern Borneo. Martadipoera, Pahang, and Taroema were among the oldest of these states. In the 7th century, the Srividjaya empire dbegan to dominate the western half of the archipelago, only collapsing in medieval times. The contemporary Mataram monarchy flourished during the same time period in Djava.

After the division and collapse of the Srividjaya and Mataram empires, several independent kingdoms formed. In the early 15th century, a Srividjayan prince founded the Sultanate of Malakka in Malaya. In Djava, the several Hindu-Buddhist principalities fought for dominance. After the Mongol invasion, the Singosari kingdom declined and the Madjahapit empire rose, which would eventually become the most powerful Soendan state since the Srividjaya.

Several kingdoms arose in Celebes in the 14th century and began expanding in the 15th, such as the Ternatian vassal Banggai, the Adjatapareng union, Loewoe, and the kingdom of Gowa. In the early 15th century, the Chinese treasure voyages arrived in Soenda. It weakened Madjahapit influence in Sumatera and Malaya and allowed Islam to flourish further, causing several principalities to become sovereign and develop.

In 1511, the Portuguese conquered Malakka. By 1520, the Madjahapit empire and its affiliates collapsed, beginning Soenda's colonial and modern eras. These states were immediately succeeded by several Muslim states, with the seven dominant ones being the Djava-based sultanates of Demak & Banten, the Malay kingdoms of Djohor and Bandjar, the Makassarese state of Gowa, and the outermost empires of Aceh and Brunei.

Early colonial era (1522-1712)

Turbulent Century (1712-1815)

19th century (1815-1900)

Antebellum period (1900-1938)

The Repression (1938-1960)

East Indies Crisis (1960-1976)