Antarctic Treaty (1946)

From Roses, Tulips, & Liberty

The Antarctic Treaty is a multilateral agreement signed between the claimants of the continent of Antarctica, which set up certain rules and regulations concerning the usage and colonization of Antarctica.


Since the 18th century European sailors and explorers have visited Antarctica (with the French having the first confirmed landing on the continent). Starting in the 1890's nations started making claims on the continent, generally centered on proximity to their nation or other claimed land (though this was not always the case).

From 1890 till the Great War these claims were often overlapping and not at all enforced, but this changed in the aftermath of the Great War and the beginnings of the Silent War. In 1942 the Russia undertook a series of expeditions to Antarctica and started the building of several research stations along with claiming a chunk of the continent as the Russian department of New Siberia. This understandably scared other claimants to the continent and after a short period of frantic base building the claimants came together in 1946 to hash out ownership of the continent.

Claimants & Division

Legitimate claimants and sovereign territories outlined in the Antarctic Treaty:

  • British Commonwealth Jointly Managed Antarctic Territory
    • Georgian Natural Claims
    • Carolinian Natural Claims
    • British Oversees Historic Claims
  • French Antarctic Territory
    • French-Australie Claims (Until 1939)
    • Aotearoa Leased Claims
    • French Sovereign Claims
  • New Siberia (Russian Administration)
  • Colombian Antarctica
  • Australie Antarctic Territory (French claims incorporated after independence)
  • King Charle's Land (Norwegian Claims)
  • Cape Antarctic Territory (Cape Republic)
  • Lusitanian Antarctic Administration (Portugal-Brasil)

Disputed claims recognized in the Antarctic Treaty:

  • Dutch Oswaldslandt
  • British Western and Roche Islands Claims

Jointly managed Antarctic territory outlined in the Antarctic Treaty:

  • Jointly Managed Territory of Oswaldslandt
  • South-Pole Buffer Territory

Unrecognized (and unenforced) Antarctic claims:

  • Polish Eastern Oswaldslandt
  • Free Irish Antarctica
  • Hannoverian Antarctic Claims
  • German Confederation Historic Claim on Oswaldslandt
  • Riograndense Antarctic Territory
  • Peruvian Antarctica
  • Genoan Atlantic Antarctic Claims (withdrawn)
  • Ottoman Antarctic Claims (withdrawn)

Treaty Stipulations

The major stipulations of the Antarctic Treaty are as follows:

1. All legitimate claims on Antarctica are to be maintained and no new claimants may come forward

2. Antarctica will remain demilitarized and commercial activity to limited to certain agreed upon levels

3. The territorial waters surrounding Antarctica may be fished by all claimants and are to be managed jointly

4. Antarctica should be used primarily for it's scientific value and not for geo-strategic reasons

5. The south pole, a south pole buffer territory and the disputed Oswaldslandt are to be jointly managed by all claimants and signers of the Antarctic treaty

6. The treaty will be renegotiated in 100 years from signing